Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. i-iv

Table of Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. v-vi

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-x

In the past fifteen years scholarship examining how gender and sexuality have influenced the United States during the Cold War has flourished.1 Yet, what is striking is the dearth of English-language scholarship that focuses on the ways in which gender and sexuality influenced the domestic and foreign policies of states other than the United States during this time period. This volume is an initial step toward rectifying this problem.

Although categorizations of gender and sexuality are interconnected and relational, we have organized this book into three sections—Sexuality, Femininities,...

read more

Introduction: Hidden in Plain Sight: The Histories of Gender and Sexuality during the Cold War

Marko Dumančić

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-12

The photograph of Leonid Brezhnev kissing Erich Honecker counts among the most iconic images of the late Cold War era; the two men embrace tightly, with eyes closed and lips touching. Taken by Régis Bossu in 1979, the photo captured the two elderly statesmen exchanging kisses on the occasion of the German Democratic Republic’s thirtieth anniversary. The amorous kiss proved sensationalistic enough to receive a two-page spread in Paris Match. In 1990, this same photograph attained immortality on a nearly mile-long stretch of the Berlin Wall when Soviet artist Dmitri Vrubel replicated it, cementing it at the center of the German capital’s public...

I. Sexuality

read more

1. Faceless and Stateless: French Occupation Policy toward Women and Children in Postwar Germany (1945-1949)

Katherine Rossy

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 15-34

By the spring of 1945, Germany was partitioned into four occupation zones. In the German states of Hessen, Bavaria, and north Baden-Württemberg, the Americans structured their German program around the “Four D’s” of the Potsdam Agreement—demilitarization, denazification, democratization, and decentralization—while countering the threat of communist expansion in the East.1 In Thuringia, Saxony, Brandenburg, and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, the Russians established a new empire in which communism would triumph over Nazism and capitalism while attempting to exploit as many German resources and technologies as...

read more

2. Patriarchy and Segregation: Policing Sexuality in US-Icelandic Military Relations

Valur Ingimundarson

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 35-52

After World War II, the US government believed that the military importance of Iceland depended on continued territorial access to the country and on integrating it into a global base system. Icelandic political elites were fully aware of Iceland’s strategic location in the middle of the North Atlantic after experiencing a “friendly” occupation by the British during the war. But while they had consented to a US wartime request to replace the bulk of the British contingent, they did not think that the American military presence in Iceland should be a permanent fixture following the defeat of Nazi Germany. For one thing, the stationing of foreign...

read more

3. Queering Subversives in Cold War Canada

Patrizia Gentile

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 53-67

In a 1959 memorandum, Don Wall, secretary of Canada’s Security Panel, described homosexuals as defiant toward society:

Sexual abnormalities appear to be the favourite target of hostile intelligence agencies, and of these homosexuality is most often used. . . . The nature of homosexuality appears to adapt itself to this kind of exploitation. By exercising fairly simple precautions, homosexuals are usually able to keep their habits hidden from those who are not specifically seeking them out. Further, homosexuals often appear to believe that the accepted ethical code which governs normal human relationships...

read more

4. "Nonreligious Activities": Sex, Anticommunism, and Progressive Christianity in Late Cold War Brazil

Benjamin A. Cowan

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 68-87

In September 1975, spies from Brazil’s Air Force Intelligence Service (Centro de Informações da Aeronáutica, or CISA), one of several agencies in the byzantine repressive apparatus of the country’s dictatorship, leveled very serious accusations against a young French missionary then residing in the state of Minas Gerais. Benjamin Thierry Lefebvre, according to a secret report emanating from Rio de Janeiro, not only had participated in the French student disturbances of 1968 but had immediately thereafter shown up in Brazil, “wearing a plaster cast to correct a fracture or dislocation resulting from a parachute jump, incurred while training for or participating...

read more

5. Manning the Enemy: US Perspectives on International Birthrates during the Cold War

Kathleen A. Tobin

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 88-110

Cold War fears and competitive behaviors in the second half of the twentieth century took many forms, not the least of which were related to regional populations. Historical competitions—through war and peacetime alike—had pitted tribe against tribe and nation against nation for millennia, commanding attention to the size of one’s enemy forces. Numbers influenced the success of campaigns, and casualties took the lives of young men who would otherwise begin families, threatening future populations, encouraging pronatalist policies, and raising expectations for women to bear more children.1 Twentieth-century weaponry devastated...

II. Femininities

read more

6. Indian Peasant Women's Activism in a Hot Cold War

Elisabeth Armstrong

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 113-137

The twentieth-century pan-Asian women’s movement did not begin as a peasant women’s movement, but by the 1940s it became one. Women who gained their livelihood through agricultural labor brought energy, relevance, and an exhilarating unpredictability to the pan-Asian women’s movement as a whole. They powerfully shaped the postwar women’s movement in the Global South, and pressured both communist and anticommunist international women’s movements in the Global North. As a mass movement, peasant women formed the core of the leftist women’s movement in the Global South. Yet our histories of the Cold War give...

read more

7. The Medicalization of Childhood in Mexico during the Early Cold War, 1945-1960

Nichole Sanders

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 138-156

While the shift from sentimental to scientific motherhood started before the Mexican Revolution (1910–1917), the role of science and, more importantly, the privileging of the medical and scientific role of motherhood over the social intensified after World War II. The historiography of Mexico has focused on this period as one of political and economic consolidation—historians and political scientists have called it “the Mexican Miracle.” The Mexican economy grew on average 6 percent per annum, and the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) established itself as the dominant political party. Scholars have debated how much...

read more

8. Africa's Kitchen Debate: Ghanaian Domestic Space in the Age of the Cold War

Jeffrey S. Ahlman

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 157-177

In a 1964 article written for the Ghanaian state-run monthly The Ghanaian, journalist Kate Sey asked the seemingly innocuous question: “Why is it that a lot of modern housewives are going in for gas-stoves[?]”1 Framing her question around what she saw as a recent abundance of magazine and newspaper advertisements promoting such appliances, Sey presented a relatively straightforward answer to her query: the appliance and others like it, such as the refrigerator and electric iron, provided women the power of time. “If we thoroughly understand and thoroughly manage [it],” Sey insisted in reference to the stove, “a gas stove can be a great...

read more

9. Mobilizing Women?: State Feminisms in Communist Czechoslovakia and Socialist Egypt

May Hawas and Philip E. Muehlenbeck

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 178-203

In the early years of the Cold War, socialist governments that espoused support for sexual equality came to power in both Czechoslovakia (1948) and Egypt (1952). Under the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Komunistická strana Československa, or KSČ) in Czechoslovakia and under Gamal Abdel Nasser’s regime in Egypt, women’s rights were publicly supported and greatly expanded. Both regimes passed new laws to ensure voting rights, equal educational and employment opportunities, government-paid maternity leave, subsidized day care, and other rights for women....

read more

10. A Vietnamese Woman Directs the War Story: Duc Hoan, 1937-2003

Karen Turner

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 204-223

War is terrible for everyone, on all sides. In Vietnam, the sacrifices of ordinary people have been ignored. I want to tell their stories. That is why I make my films.” War veteran, actress, producer, and director Duc Hoan, affectionately known in Hanoi intellectual circles as the “elder stateswoman” of Vietnamese film, viewed herself as a critic who drew on her own experiences to explore the themes of war and loss that dominated her work. Despite her popularity among Hanoi intellectuals of the war generation, however, Duc Hoan was never granted the official recognition her films deserve, in part because she challenged postwar...

read more

11. Global Feminism and Cold War Paradigms: Women's International NGOs and the United Nations, 1970-1985

Karen Garner

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 224-248

As World War II ended, international actors faced new configurations of global power. A state of Cold War emerged as rivalries and confrontations between the “free world” led by the United States and other capitalist democracies and the “communist world” led by the Soviet Union and other socialist states overturned earlier visions of a collaborative “one world” community that idealistic internationalists had dreamed of during the world war. Cold War conflicts in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America divided and sometimes immobilized the postwar global governance system, led by the United Nations (UN),...

III. Masculinities

read more

12. "Men of the World" or "Uniformed Boys"?: Hegemonic Masculinity and the British Army in the Era of the Korean War

Grace Huxford

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 251-269

The Korean War is sometimes referred to as “the forgotten war.”1 The unclear war aims of the conflict and the inconclusive end to hostilities in 1953 meant that the war slipped into obscurity: although it was the first United Nations (UN) war and arguably the first “hot” war of the Cold War, it has been neither praised nor vilified to any great extent.2 Its obscurity is even more profound in the United Kingdom. Although Britain had the second-largest national contingent of troops, few history books, novels, or films mark the British contribution to the UN force, which had pledged support to the Republic of Korea following the invasion of the...

read more

13. Yuri Gagarin and Celebrity Masculinity in Soviet Culture

Erica L. Fraser

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 270-290

In April 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first person to successfully orbit the earth. Seated in the cramped capsule of Vostok-1, Gagarin was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and executed one full orbit before landing again. He was a twenty-seven-year-old senior lieutenant in the Soviet Air Force with a wife and two young daughters, and his face and name were about to explode onto headlines around the world. Overturning years of secrecy about the cosmonaut training program, the Soviet government publicized Gagarin’s historic flight as soon as he landed. Such publicity was partly meant to announce to the United States that...

Contributors

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 291-294

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 295-310