Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Frontispiece

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pp. i-viii

Contents

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pp. ix-xii

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xviii

This is the sixth volume of the chronological edition of the writings of Charles S. Peirce, started in 1975 under the leadership of Max H. Fisch and Edward C. Moore and expected to run to thirty volumes. The edition is selective but comprehensive and includes all writings, on any subject, believed to shed significant light on the development of Peirce's thought. The selections are edited according to the guidelines of the Modern Language Association's Committee on Scholarly Editions, and Volume 6 has been awarded the Committee's seal as an approved...

Chronology

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pp. xix-xxii

Bibliographical Abbreviations in Editorial Matter

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pp. xxiii-xxiv

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Introduction

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pp. xxv-lxxxvi

The period from 1887 through the spring of 1890, though not without hope and accomplishment, was a time of disillusionment and defeat for Peirce.1 Only a few years earlier, Peirce s father, Benjamin, the great mathematician and astronomer, had proudly proclaimed to the Boston Radical Club that his son Charles would carry on his life's work and would develop and fertilize vistas he had only glimpsed. No one doubted it. Charles's star was rising. During the first half of the 1880s, he was one of Americas elite scientists and the only American logician known the world over. Peirce had...

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1. Boolian Algebra–Elementary Explanations

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pp. 1-8

There is a very convenient system of signs by which very intricate problems of reasoning can be solved. I shall now introduce you to one part of this system only, and after you are well exercised in that, we will study some additional signs which give the method increased range and power. We use letters in this system to signify statements or facts, real or fictitious. We change their signification to suit the different problems. Two statements a and b are said to be equivalent when equal, provided that in every conceivable state of things in...

Correspondence Course on the Art of Reasoning

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2. [Circular for Course on the Art of Reasoning]

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pp. 10-14

The education best entitled to be called liberal is that which is calculated to put the student in full possession of his powers and to enable him to direct them as he will. But if this be true, the art of thinking must be acknowledged to be the soul of liberal training, and to constitute, indeed, an education by itself. It is true that no single branch of learning can replace a rounded culture; but if circumstances compel the choice of a single branch, that one should be the science of thought itself. If, on the other hand, many studies are pursued...

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3. [Follow-up Letter to Circular]

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pp. 15-18

Dear Sir:— No full account of my method of teaching "The Art of Reasoning" has yet been printed, but I will give you some information additional to what you will find in my circular.

First:— The machinery of the instruction is this. The correspondence is treated as strictly confidential, and no person will learn anything about it from me, except my clerks, who will see only what it is necessary and fitting they should. The pupil exercises his own discretion as to what he will say on the subject. The instruction is divided...

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4. A Few Specimens of Exercises in the Art of Reasoning

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pp. 19-20

If your making your men work in your powder-mill at night would lose you much money, you would get your property insured. If fire is dropped into a barrel of gunpowder, there will be a terrific explosion. If the certainty that a terrific explosion would lose you much money would lead you to insure your property, you would be sure to find that no company would take the risk. Hence, if your making your men work in your powder-mill at night would make danger of fire being dropped into a barrel of gunpowder, you cannot get any company...

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5. Directions to Agents

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pp. 21-32

CLASSES TO BE ADDRESSED. The mayor. Clergymen, lawyers, doctors. Superintendent of schools, principal of the high-school (having interested him, you get permission to address the pupils, most easily on a Saturday. The same applies to all other classes of teachers). Teachers of private schools, young ladies' academies, business colleges, law schools, divinity schools, etc. Leave circulars in the bookstores and apothecaries, after making friends with the booksellers and the apothecaries. Get hold of the young men directly wherever...

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6. [Letter to New Students]

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pp. 33-34

My dear Pupil:

The first thing that you and I have to do is to form one another's acquaintance. You have hitherto probably been taught in a class, but my instruction is to be fitted to your individual mind. It is a custom-made and not a ready-made education. Very likely you are of opinion that ready-made things pay the best for the purchaser. But you will agree, I think, that if every day-laborer knew how to work with wood, the carpenter trade would be worse than it is; if every man could conduct a law suit as well as a lawyer, the lawyers...

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7. [Orientation Letter to Marie Noble]

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pp. 35-36

MISS MARIE B. D. NOBLE,

Care Messrs. Gorham, Turner, & Co., Mills Building, New York City.

My dear pupil:

I am glad that you have applied to me; for I am entirely confident of being able to be of service to you. Your letter is a very clear one, and shows good intellectual powers. You have had a long period of ill-health, which has impaired the vigor of your will-power. Your difficulty of seeing two sides of every practical question is a familiar fact to me, though I have never experienced it myself. It is no symptom...

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8. [Letter to Noble on the Nature of Reasoning]

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pp. 37-40

MISS MARIE B. D. NOBLE,

Care Messrs. Gorham, Turner, & Co., New York City.

My dear pupil:

I wish to begin by giving you some general idea of the nature of reasoning. All reasoning involves observation. A chemist sets up an apparatus of flasks and tubes, he puts certain substances in the former, he applies heat, and then he watches closely to see what the result will be. The procedure of the mathematician is closely analogous to this. He draws a diagram, for example, conforming to certain...

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9. [Reasoning Exercises: Number Series, Relational Graphs, and Card Games]

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pp. 41-49

The following rows of numbers are called Fermat's series:

0 1 3 7 15 31 63 127 255 511 1023 2047 etc.
2 3 5 9 17 33 65 129 257 513 1025 2049 etc.

Find out the rules of the succession of numbers in these two series.

The numbers in the following row are called the phyllotactic numbers. The series is also called Fibonacci's series, because first studied in the XHIth century by the mathematician Leonardo of Pisa, called...

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10. Boolian Algebra [Three Lessons]

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pp. 50-53

In this system of signs, each letter of the alphabet is the abbreviated statement of a fact, simple or complex. Thus, x might be taken to signify that twice two is four, and that either all men are mortal or else Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Salem, Mass. Every letter is an abbreviated statement. It may be of all that is stated in a book, it may be of something very simple.

The sign = is used in ordinary algebra to signify equality. Thus, x = y, read "x equals y" can be written when the quantity named x is known to be equal to the quantity...

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11. [Two Letters from J. B. Loring on Algebra Lessons]

J. B. Loring

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pp. 54-55

Mr C. S. Peirce

Dear Sir:

I enclose my solutions of the questions relating to 1st lesson. Please excuse pencil. I am a poor penman and can write plainer and more quickly with pencil than with pen.

Am somewhat doubtful as to the last solution but it is the best I can do with it. I do not see how there can be any other. It is required to demonstrate that
(x + y)(y+z)(z + x) = xy + yz + zx.
The statement at the left of the sign of equality relates to multiplication and its truth depends upon the truth of each of the 3 statements...

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12. [Reply to Loring]

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pp. 56-57

Mr. J. B. Loring, Box 555 New York.

My dear pupil:

I congratulate you on the way you are taking hold of the subject. I have received yours of Dec. 22 and 27. You will please make it a rule to report to me at the end of each four hours' work, so that we shall know when the quarter ends; for its length is determined by the amount of work that you have done, measured in time.

I will first consider the equation
(x + y)(y + z)(z + x) = xy + yz + zx.
Your reasoning in your letter is pretty well. It does not fully meet...

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13. [Additional Exercises in Boolian Algebra]

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pp. 58-60

I saw a man in the street who had a way of looking up and squinnying his eyes which showed me that he was either excessively nearsighted or somewhat foolish. He went up to a post-box at the corner and tried to put some object through the top, until he finally found the slit in the side of the box. He was not foolish enough to account for this conduct, and was certainly not intoxicated; so that he was plainly either excessively near-sighted or else absent-minded. Having put something small into the box he next sat down on the...

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14. [Science and Immortality]

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pp. 61-64

What is the bearing of positively ascertained facts upon the doctrine of a future life?

By the doctrine of a future life, I understand the proposition that after death we shall retain or recover our individual consciousness, feeling, volition, memory, and, in short (barring an unhappy contingency), all our mental powers unimpaired. The question is, laying aside all higher aspects of this doctrine, its sacredness and sentiment,—concerning which a scientific man is not, as such, entitled to...

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15. Logical Machines

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pp. 65-72

In the "Voyage to Laputa" there is a description of a machine for evolving science automatically. "By this contrivance, the most ignorant person, at a reasonable charge, and with little bodily labor, might write books in philosophy, poetry, politics, laws, mathematics, and theology, without the least assistance from genius or study." The intention is to ridicule the Organon of Aristotle and the Organon of Bacon, by showing the absurdity of supposing that any "instrument" can do the work of the mind. Yet the logical machines of Jevons and Marquand...

The Peirce-Gurney Dispute over Phantasms of the Living

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16. Criticism on Phantasms of the Living: An Examination of an Argument of Messrs. Gurney, Myers, and Podmore

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pp. 74-81

The most imposing of the arguments of Messrs. Gurney, Myers, and Podmore, in favor of spontaneous telepathy, popularly called ghosts, as presented in their Phantasms of the Living is this. Only one person in three thousand each year has a visual hallucination. Hence it is easy to calculate from the annual death-rate that in a population of fifty millions there would be each only one visual hallucination fortuitously coinciding within twelve hours, before or after, with the death of the person represented. But these gentlemen, having addressed...

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17. Remarks on Professor Peirce's Paper

Edmund Gurney

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pp. 82-100

The foregoing review has been to me a source of genuine pleasure and profit; not so much in respect of the special points which the writer raises,—though my pleasure is not diminished by the sense that on most of these his objections can be fairly met,—as on account of the business-like and thorough spirit in which he has gone to work. Criticism, as my colleagues and I should allow, and even insist, is what the exponents of every new doctrine must expect; and in the case of a doctrine so new to science as telepathy, the criticism cannot be too searching. But, on this subject, searching criticism is as rare as loose and hasty comment is the reverse. The world...

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18. Mr. Peirce's Rejoinder

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pp. 101-141

When Phantasms of the Living appeared, I desired for my own satisfaction to examine the arguments for spontaneous telepathy. But, as I lacked the leisure to study the whole, I was forced to confine my attention to a single argument,—the most important one. Having reached a definite opinion in regard to the validity of this, I found myself in the possession of a good many notes which I thought might be useful in economizing the time of another student of the book. I, therefore, abridged these notes as much as possible, and so constructed...

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19. Remarks on Mr. Peirce's Rejoinder (by E. Gurney)

Edmund Gurney

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pp. 142-154

I will endeavor to make the present reply as short as possible, my object being, not so much to make controversial points, as to ensure, as far as possible, that Mr. Peirce's treatment of the evidence and argument for telepathy shall not prevent his readers from studying them at length and at first-hand. Consequently I shall say little or nothing on matters where I believe that an impartial study of what has been said in Phantasms of the Living, or in my previous reply, obviates the necessity of further explanation and defence, nor shall I attempt to put what I have to say in connected literary form. It will be enough to state the points which need stating, one after another,...

20. Number

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p. 155

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21. Logic of Number

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pp. 156-164

The fundamental premises concerning number may be stated as follows.

First Premise
There is a number such that whatever is true of it and also if of any number then of every next greater, is true of every number. If we write Ejk to signify that k is next greater than j, and qαi to signify that i has the character α, this first proposition can be written
ΣiΠaΣjΣkΠl (αi + qαEjkαk + qαl)
It will be a useful abbreviation to call a character which if true of any...

A Guess at the Riddle

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22. [Contents]

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pp. 166-167

Chapter 1. One, Two, Three. Already written.

Chapter 2. The triad in reasoning. Not touched. It is to be made as follows. 1. Three kinds of signs; as best shown in my last paper in the American Journal of Mathematics. 2. Term, proposition, and argument, mentioned in my paper on a new list of categories. 3. Three kinds of argument, deduction, induction, hypothesis, as shown in my paper in Studies in Logic. Also three figures of syllogism, as shown there and in my paper on the classification of arguments. 4. Three...

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23. Chapter I. Trichotomy

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pp. 168-180

To erect a philosophical edifice that shall outlast the vicissitudes of time, my care must be, not so much to set each brick with nicest accuracy, as to lay the foundations deep and massive. Aristotle builded upon a few deliberately chosen concepts,—such as matter and form, act and power,—very broad, and in their outlines vague and rough, but solid, unshakable, and not easily undermined; and thence it has come to pass that Aristotelianism is babbled in every nursery; that "English Common Sense," for example, is thoroughly peripatetic;...

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24. [Chapter III ] The Triad in Metaphysics

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p. 181

I will run over all the conceptions that played an important part in the pre-Socratic philosophy and see how far they can be expressed in terms of one, two, three.

1. The first of all the conceptions of philosophy is that of a primal matter out of which the world is made. Thales and the early Ionian philosophers busied themselves mainly with this. They called it the arche, the beginning; so that the conception of First was the quintessence of it. Nature was a wonder to them, and they asked its...

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25. Chapter IV. The Triad in Psychology

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pp. 182-187

The line of reasoning which I propose to pursue is peculiar, and will need some careful study to estimate the strength of it. I shall review it critically in the last chapter, but meantime I desire to point out that the step I am about to take, which is analogous to others that will follow, is not so purely of the nature of a guess as might be supposed by persons expert in judging of scientific evidence. We have seen that the ideas of One, Two, Three, are forced upon us in logic, and really cannot be dispensed with. They meet us not once but at every turn. And we have...

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26. Chapter V. The Triad in Physiology

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pp. 188-198

Granted that there are three fundamentally different kinds of consciousness, it follows as a matter of course that there must be something threefold in the physiology of the nervous system to account for them. No materialism is implied in this, further than that intimate dependence of the action of the mind upon the body which every student of the subject must and does now acknowledge. Once more a prediction, as it were, is made by the theory; that is to say, certain consequences, not contemplated in the construction thereof, necessarily...

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27. Chapter VI. The Triad in Biological Development

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pp. 199-202

A very remarkable feature in the Darwinian theory is that it shows that merely fortuitous variations of individuals together with merely fortuitous mishaps to individuals (whether really fortuitous or not, they may be so for the purposes of the theory) should, under the action of heredity, result, not in mere irregularity, nor even in a mere statistical constancy, but in a continual and indefinite progress toward the adaptation of species to their environments. How can this be? What, abstractly stated, is the peculiar element in the conditions of the problem...

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28. Chapter VII. The Triad in Physics

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pp. 203-210

Metaphysical philosophy may almost be called the child of geometry. Of the three schools of early Greek philosophers, two, the Ionic and the Pythagorean, were all geometers, and the interest of the Eleatics in that science is often mentioned. Plato was a great figure in the history of both subjects; and Aristotle derived from the study of space some of his most potent conceptions. Metaphysics depends in great measure on the idea of rigid demonstration from first principles; and this idea, as well in regard to the process as the axioms from which it...

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29. [Trichotomic]

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pp. 211-215

TRICHOTOMIC is the art of making three-fold divisions. Such division depends on the conceptions of 1st, 2nd, 3rd. First is the beginning, that which is fresh, original, spontaneous, free. Second is that which is determined, terminated, ended, correlative, object, necessitated, reacting. Third is the medium, becoming, developing, bringing about.

A thing considered in itself is a unit. A thing considered as a correlate or dependent, or as an effect, is second to something else. A thing which in any way brings one thing into relation with another is a third...

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30. Pendulum Observations at Fort Conger

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pp. 216-245

In 1881 the Chief Signal Officer applied to the Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey for pendulum apparatus, instructions, etc., to enable Lieutenant Greely to determine the acceleration of gravity at Lady Franklin Bay. Mr. Carlile P. Patterson, then Superintendent of the Survey, was a man of high intelligence, and though he did not class himself among scientific men, yet had for so many years conducted investigations in association with them that he understood most of the conditions of success in scientific work. He at once put me into personal communication with Lieutenant Greely, and instructed me to...

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31. Reflections on the Logic of Science

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pp. 246-259

Those who view the results of science from the outside, who judge from the telephone, the Brush and incandescent lights, instantaneous photography, the phonograph, etc., imagine that science is now making rapid strides; but those who are within the circle of research know better.

The truth is that the description of the properties of matter, so far as they can be directly observed, has been for some years, approximately speaking, and barring details and niceties, complete. Whoever will look through the Beibldtter to the Annalen der Physik und Chemie, which forms...

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32. Note on the Analytical Representation of Space as a Section of a Higher Dimensional Space

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pp. 260-262

With the three coordinates, x, y, z, of a point in space, let a fourth meaningless variable, u, be associated. Then, any pair of equations linear in x, y, z, u, will, after the elimination of u, determine a plane. Any 3 such equations, taken in pairs, will determine 3 coaxal planes, the axis being determined by all three equations. Any 4 such equations, taken in pairs, will determine 6 planes passing in threes through 4 lines meeting in one point, determined by all four equations together. Any 5 such equations, taken in pairs, will determine 10...

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33. Ordinal Geometry

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pp. 263-267

By ordinal geometry, I mean the theory of the arrangements of segments.

I make use of the notation of the algebra of logic. If a denotes a part of the line, plane, or solid considered, denotes the complementary part. "Qualification" is the respect in which a and differ. To change the qualification of a letter is to "requalify" it. The expression a -< b means a is included in b. The product of two segments is their common part. The sum includes all that is included in either. A...

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34. [Mathematical Monads]

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pp. 268-270

As the mathematics are now understood, each branch,—or, if you please, each problem,—is but the study of the relations of a collection of connected objects, without parts, without any distinctive characters, except their names or designating letters. These objects are commonly called points; but to remove all notion of space relations, it may be better to name them monads. The relations between these points are mere complications of two different kinds of elementary relations, which may be termed immediate connection and immediate...

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35. Review of Stock's Deductive Logic

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pp. 271-274

One of the author's friends who looked over this book in manuscript advised him not to publish it because it was too like all other Logics; another advised him to cut out a considerable amount of new matter. We cannot help being of the opinion that both of these friends were persons of a great deal of wisdom. In spite of the fact that the latter advice was followed, a good part of the new matter which is retained is, as we shall presently show, erroneous, and the old matter is, to say the least, not better set forth than in several...

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36. Report on Gravity at the Smithsonian, Ann Arbor, Madison, and Cornell

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pp. 275-353

THESE DETERMINATIONS WERE MADE AT THE FOLLOWING STATIONS:
Smithsonian. This station is in the North East corner of the cellar of the building of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. The station was selected by Colonel Herschel and me, and was first occupied by him. Since that time considerable changes have been made in the building, and the station was at the time of the observations herein described some 6 feet higher than when Col. Herschel occupied it. My station is about 15 feet further south than HerscheFs. It is about 0.'3 south of the Washington Observatory, so that its latitude is...

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37. [Reasoning]

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pp. 354-356

The first thing to remark about reasoning is that it is a passage from one belief to another. The propositions embodying the earlier and later beliefs are called respectively the premises and conclusion: the latter is said to be inferred or concluded from the former by the process of inference or reasoning.

But that one belief is subsequent to another signifies nothing, unless it also results from that other. When this is the case we have something like inference: it may be called by that name in a broad...

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38. On a Geometrical Notation

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pp. 357-359

Let A, B, C, D, etc., be multiple quantities determining points in space. Let (ABCD) be such a function of the quantities A, B, C, D, that (ABCD) = 0 shall signify that the points A, B, C, D, are coplanar. We may write (ABC.) = 0 to mean that (ABCX) = 0 holds no matter what point X may be, so that A, B, C, are collinear. In like manner, (AB..) = 0 will mean that A = B.

Any three points, A, B, C, lie in one plane; for A = A, or (AA..) = 0. Hence,...

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39. On the Numbers of Forms of Sets

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pp. 360-362

The number of objects (say, letters) in a set may be called the plurality of the set. If the places for single objects in a set are all distinguished from one another (say, as first, second, etc.), the set may be called a perfectly ordered set, or ad; or, according to its plurality, a monad, dyad, triad, tetrad, etc. Some of the objects of a set may be alike, so that the same kind may go in several places, although one place can contain but one kind. Two sets of the same plurality and diversity are said to have the same form, if one can be changed into the...

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40. The Formal Classification of Relations

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pp. 363-367

1. Relations may be classified without regard to the form of their elements.
11. As to what they contain.
111. Whether an element or not. The latter class embraces only the relation 0.
112. Whether a pair of elements or not. A relation embracing one element but not a pair is individual.
113. etc. This system of classification may be extended to sets of any number of elements....

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41. Dual Relatives

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pp. 368-371

1. These may be classified, first, with regard to the forms of their single couples. These forms are two, A:A and A:B.
11. A relation may contain (a) none, (b) a part, or (c) all the couples of the form A: A in the universe.
12. A relation may contain (a) none, (b) a part, or (c) all the couples of the form A:B.

The only relation which contains none of either form is that of incompossibility. The only relation which contains all of both forms is...

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42. Notes on Geometry of Plane Curves without Imaginaries

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pp. 372-376

I. Point. From every point in plane one tangent.
No line intersects it.

II. Line. No tangent to it.
Every line intersects it.

III. Oval without singularities divides plane into two regions.

Inner lines 2 intersections
Outer lines 0 "...

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43. Review of Noel's The Science of Metrology

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pp. 377-379

The metric system is now supposed to be taught in the arithmetic course in every school. If it were well taught—say, if a quarter of an hour twice a week for half a school year were intelligently devoted to it—the pupils would forever after be more familiar with millimetres, centimetres, metres, and kilometres, with grammes and kilogrammes, with ares and hectares, and with litres, than they are ever likely to be with the English units. Who, except an occasional grocer, can guess at a pound within two ounces; or how many, besides engineers...

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44. [Logic and Spiritualism]

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pp. 380-394

Facts, new or newly published, rappings, table-turnings, with different predispositions opining differently, started controversy concerning Spiritualism. In course of time, other facts, as planchette, public exhibitions, mind-reading, trances, apparitions, physical manifestations in great variety, many hundred well-attested strange experiences, attempts at scientific experimentation,—contrariwise, important mediums and mind-readers detected rogues, new psychological laws explanatory of various illusions,—all these facts...

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45. Herbert Spencer's Philosophy

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pp. 395-400

Is It Unscientific and Unsound?—Its Pretensions Attacked and a Demonstration Called For

Herbert Spencer s philosophy has been before the public now for some thirty years; it seems time that some one should tell the truth about it, and inform the public what value has been accorded to it by men competent to judge it. We know well enough that Hegelians and such like scorn it, and also that the "general reader" reveres it. But what we would like to have told is whether the pretensions of...

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46. Review of Collins's Epitome of the Synthetic Philosophy

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p. 401

A more admirably executed second-hand synopsis of a system of philosophy never was. Considered simply as an index to Spencers systematic works, this Epitome is invaluable; and to persons who read and reread those thick volumes, not because they believe in them, but only because they want to know what it is that so many others believe, and to whom the writings of the dreariest scholastic doctor are less heartbreakingly tedious, this one volume of 500 pages in place of a library of 5,000 pages is like balm of Gilead. Would it only...

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47. "Outsider" Wants More Light

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pp. 402-412

He Cometh After His Critics and Searcheth Them—Spencer s Standing in Science—His Theory of Evolution—"Outsider" Is an Inquirer, Not an Assailant.

To the Editor of the New York Times:

I am an individual who three weeks ago gave utterance in your columns to questions weighing on me respecting Herbert Spencer s philosophy. I wanted a lesson. I did not argue, except so far as was necessary to setting forth my doubts. I simply begged to be informed...

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Editorial Symbols

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pp. 413-416

Peirce's writings are presented (as nearly as possible) in a clear-text format. Omitted passages in abridged selections are identified (by page or table reference) within italic brackets at the point of abridgement. All other insertions are the result of authorial rather than editorial circumstances. Situations caused by various kinds of interruptions or incompleteness in Peirce's surviving texts are indicated as follows:

Italic brackets enclose titles and other text supplied by the editors (including parts of words in damaged documents that have been...

Annotations

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pp. 417-505

Bibliography of Peirce's References

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pp. 506-511

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Chronological Catalog, January 1887-April 1890

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pp. 512-530

Beginning with this volume, what in previous volumes was called the "Chronological List" is taking on a new appearance. This is partly due to a change of policy that took place in the fall of 1996. At that time the Project and its advisors came to understand that the greatest impediment to the Projects pace of production was the commitment to reorganize all the manuscripts, including every page of every fragment, and to arrange all the writings in strict compositional order, whether they were going to be published or not. This was necessary for the preparation of a new catalog...

Supplement to W5 Chronological List, 1884-1886

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pp. 531-533

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Essay on Editorial Theory and Method

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pp. 534-556

In 1890, Peirce joined with Alexander Campbell Fraser, John Locke's then-most recent biographer, in a public plea for a new edition of Locke's works. Peirce firmly maintained that Locke, "whose utterances still have their lessons for the world ... should be studied in a complete, correct, and critical edition." He wished no less for his own work, and fought a well-documented battle with editors throughout his publishing career. But it was his misfortune to write for editors who often were not qualified to edit (or even to understand) his work; those few who understood and believed in Peirce had to...

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Textual Apparatus: Headnotes, Textual Notes, Emendations, Rejected Substantives, Alterations, Line-End Hyphenation

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pp. 557-671

The Textual Apparatus provides (together with the Essay on Editorial Theory and Method) a nearly complete record of what has been done in the editing process, and it presents the necessary evidence for the editorial decisions that have been made in this critical edition. It consists of forty-seven sections, corresponding to the number of selections published in the present volume, and each section contains up to five separate subdivisions. Each of the forty-seven sections begins with its identifying number in the volume and its (running-head) short title. It is followed by an untitled headnote...

Line-End Hyphenation in the Edition Text

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p. 672

Index

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pp. 673-698