Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. xi-xiv

In an effort to highlight the importance of Tanzania’s national independence to world history, I present a chronological and thematically based narrative that focuses on the parallel and conflicting visions of liberation and solidarity that came out of varied encounters and collaborative projects between black radical activists/organizations and Tanzanian one-party state institutions. What kinds of strategies did diaspora political actors employ in carving out and defining a collective role in Tanzania’s nationalist project? What was the nature of the response...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-14

In an article that appeared in his independently published journal, The Crusader, Robert F. Williams, an African American political exile, wrote about his unforgettable 1,5 00-mile motorcycle journey from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to the border of Zambia and back in May 1968. Titled “African Safari: Hells Run on a Motorcycle,” a reference to the country’s most notorious highway, Williams reflects on his “grueling act of daring.” Through daylight and darkness he rode past...

Abbreviations

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pp. 15-16

Part 1: Encounters

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pp. 17-18

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Chapter 1. Malcolm X, A. M. Babu, and the Seeds of Solidarity

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pp. 19-42

The speed with which the dismantling of colonialism occurred in Africa was cause for celebration among African Americans. Between 1957 and 1963, approximately twenty-six independent nations in Africa came into being.1 For African Americans eager to identify and connect with African states and their leaders sympathetic to and supportive of their struggle for racial justice, Tanzanian President Nyerere’s pro–civil rights and pan-Africanist positions put...

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Chapter 2. Growth and Conflict in SNCC-Tanzania Relations

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pp. 43-72

Malcolm X’s assassination left many African Americans shaken, confused, and angry. Among those significantly wounded by his death were the young black organizers of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, pronounced “snick”). Founded in 1960 after students in Greensboro, North Carolina, initiated a nationwide sit-in movement against racial segregation, SNCC emerged to channel that energy, spirit, and courage exhibited by the nation’s young people into grassroots community organizing and nonviolent direct action...

Part 2: Doings

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pp. 73-74

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Chapter 3. Walter Rodney, African Students, and the Struggle to Define University Education

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pp. 75-104

Malcolm X and Carmichael’s visits to Dar es Salaam in 1964 and 1967, respectively, illustrated how international travel became an important practice o f African solidarity work and represented a breakthrough in Black Power–Tanzania relations. For political activists in the African Diaspora, however, it became just as important to show solidarity in action through active participation in Tanzania’s nationalist project by living and working in the country....

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Chapter 4. The Drum and Spear Press and the Cultural Politics of Book Publishing

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pp. 105-146

In the context of the Black Power movement in the United States, the publication of How Europe Underdeveloped Africa positioned Walter Rodney as one of the most important intellectuals of the era. For anyone interested in gaining a historical understanding of slavery and colonialism in Africa and the challenges that postcolonial states faced in ridding their nations of these legacies, Rodney ’s text became required reading and a part of a canon of revolutionary literature...

Part 3: Undoing

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pp. 147-148

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Chapter 5. Convergence and Rejection at the Sixth Pan-African Congress

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pp. 149-184

Through much of the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Black Power movement continued to put on display its internationalist sensibilities. Though various efforts were made to boost black popular and political support for African liberation, activists identified the lack of functional unity between Africa and its diaspora as a problem of increasing importance. In a context in which regions in Africa were still under colonial rule and white minority control, not to mention independent nation-states having little to show for their ambitious efforts...

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Conclusion

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pp. 185-194

By the mid-1980s, the enthusiasm for pan-Africanist activity surrounding Tanzania’s nationalist project had considerably waned. The Pan-African Skills Project continued to send African American skilled technicians to Africa until 1980, but the project’s expansion to other nations and its attempt to implement other projects also hindered the progress and growth of the skilled-labor project in Tanzania.1 President Nyerere, perhaps sensing the shift in mood...

Notes

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pp. 195-230

Bibliography

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pp. 231-262

Index

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pp. 263-273