Cover

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Title Page, Series Page, Copyright, dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-xii

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Foreword

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pp. xiii-xviii

During the late 1960s, when Leonid Brezhnev was the preeminent leader of the Soviet Union, the Kremlin repudiated the more relaxed policies of Nikita Khrushchev, who had been deposed in October 1964. Brezhnev tightened censorship over cultural expression and historical...

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Author’s Acknowledgments

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pp. xix-xx

I would like to express my profound appreciation to the people and organizations who helped me write this book. I am grateful to all those who shared their memories and thoughts with me and who gave me access to their personal archives, including those whose interviews are...

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Editor’s Acknowledgments

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pp. xxi-xxiv

It was my great honor to become acquainted with Yuli Kosharovsky while he was finishing work on his monumental four-volume history of the Jewish movement in the Soviet Union, My snova evrei (We Are Jews Again). I had come to Israel for research on Soviet Jewish activism, documenting...

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Note on the Text and Russian Names

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pp. xxv-xxvi

Yuli Kosharovsky wrote the main text of chapters 2–5, drawing on the extensive interviews he conducted with former activists. For this edition, the editor has condensed the text in those chapters from the original and slightly adapted the language to create consistent third-person narration...

Part One: History from the Ground Up

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1. Soviet Jews: Making History

Ann Komaromi

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pp. 3-18

The liberation of Soviet Jews is a gratifyingly heroic phase of Jewish history in the late twentieth century. Soviet Jews accomplished something remarkable: they resurrected their Jewish identity from what had been a “valley of dry bones” after the destruction of Jewish life under Stalin. External...

Part Two: Voices of the Movement

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2. Beginnings

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pp. 21-89

The period from the second half of 1948 until March 1953 has been justly described in terms of the “black years” of Soviet Jewry.1 On Stalin’s secret orders, the chairman of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC), the actor Solomon Mikhoels, was killed in a staged accident in Minsk on January...

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3. Context and Strategies

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pp. 90-176

The first worldwide Jewish conference devoted to the issue of Soviet Jewry was convened in Brussels from February 23 to 25, 1971, two months after the first Leningrad hijacking trial. More than fifteen hundred people representing Western Jewish communities from thirty-eight countries...

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4. Developments and Divisions

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pp. 177-248

A powerful eruption of consolidating energy accompanied the process of transforming Jewish national identification into a positive attribute. Indeed, the difficult conditions under which Jewish activists worked created a need for unity. There were, however, causes for disagreements...

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5. Legalization and Mass Aliya

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pp. 249-322

Although the Kremlin’s harsh repressive policy in the first half of the 1980s, which it enforced by numerous threats, interrogations, searches, and arrests of activists, dealt a serious blow to refuseniks’ activities, it did not succeed in crushing the Jewish movement. The powerful...

Appendix A. Soviet and Post-Soviet Jewish Emigration

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pp. 323-324

Appendix B. Major Events and Anti-Zionist Trials

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pp. 325-336

Notes

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pp. 337-372

Bibliography

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pp. 373-380

Index

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pp. 381-423