Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. vi-vii

Dedication

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xiv

“How does the past matter?” Five simple words, and yet at the same time an enormously complex question. This book is motivated by an overarching desire to try to understand the answer to this question generally, but also to understand the effect of a particularly important past, perhaps the single greatest social experiment in the radical remaking of society in the modern era: Soviet communism.

Note that the question with which we begin is not “does the past matter?” but rather “how does the past matter?” We consider the former...

Country Code Abbreviations Used in Figures 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, and 7.1

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pp. xv-xviii

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Chapter 1. Communism’s Shadow

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pp. 1-31

More than a quarter century after the Leninist extinction in the former Soviet bloc, the specter—or at least the memory—of communism still haunts the region. Memories of Stalinism (both glowing and bitter) feature prominently in the political discourse of Russia and Ukraine, while new national-populist regimes in Poland and Hungary justify their political tactics at least in part in terms of the fight against communism, even as their opponents accuse them of having adopted much of the communists’ mindset and tactics. Even if much of this language is intended simply as a...

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Chapter 2. Living through Communism

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pp. 32-62

In the previous chapter, we laid out two different analytical frameworks for how to explain the fact that post-communist citizens hold systematically different social, economic, and political attitudes than people elsewhere in the world. The first focused on the fact that post-communist citizens today are living in a particular set of countries, with particular pre-communist histories, particular developmental paths during the years of communist rule, and particular sociodemographic characteristics, economic conditions, and political conditions and institutions at the time...

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Chapter 3. Methods and Data

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pp. 63-98

The goal of this book is to document differences (or the lack thereof) in opinions about fundamental political, economic, and social issues between citizens in post-communist countries and those in the rest of the world and to assess the extent to which these differences are due to communist-era legacies. More specifically, we want to understand the extent to which living in a post-communist country and/or living through communism can account for these attitudinal differences, and we want to do so in a rigorous, transparent, and falsifiable manner. The point of this chapter—much...

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Chapter 4. Democracy

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pp. 99-135

The collapse of communism generally—and in much of East-Central Europe in particular—was accompanied by overwhelming enthusiasm for democracy (Stoner and McFaul 2013; Fish 1995). Indeed, it is possible to call the anti-communist movements that swept through Eastern Europe largely pro-democracy movements: if there was a single common demand of all opposition forces, it was for the various communist parties in the region to give up their respective monopolies on power (Roeder 1993; Stark and Bruszt 1998). And yet, we began this book in Chapter 1...

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Chapter 5. Markets

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pp. 136-185

If the contrast between single-party rule in communist countries and Western-style multiparty democracy was the clearest political difference between Eastern and Western Europe during the Cold War, surely the division between capitalism and communism’s approach to state management of the economy was the biggest ideological distinction. after all, Marxism—despite its political implications—was in its essence an argument for a different system of economic management, one in which capital would no longer exploit labor and a benevolent state under the leadership of the Communist Party would oversee the economy for the...

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Chapter 6. Social Welfare

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pp. 186-214

If anti-market rhetoric was the stick of communism’s Marxist economic message, then a nurturing state providing cradle-to-grave social welfare could be considered the carrot (Cook 1993; Roberts 2010; Lipsmeyer 2003). It is to this topic that we turn in this chapter as we examine attitudes toward social welfare, and, more specifically, the extent to which the state should be responsible for providing for the welfare of its citizens.

There is a rich extant literature on attitudes toward social welfare policies, although the vast majority of this work has featured research from...

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Chapter 7. Gender Equality

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pp. 215-246

In the previous three chapters, we examined the effect of communist legacies on attitudes toward democracy, markets, and social welfare. In all three cases, we found clear attitudinal differences—in line with communist ideology—that we could explore to see if living in a post-communist country or living through communism could help provide an explanation for these differences. But communism was more than simply a political or economic project—it had an explicitly social component as well. economic equality was to usher in social equality, including in relationships...

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Chapter 8. Temporal Resilience and Change

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pp. 247-281

The preceding four chapters have revealed significant attitudinal differences between citizens of post-communist and non-communist countries on a number of crucial political and economic issues during the first two decades after the collapse of Eastern European and Soviet communism. Moreover, despite important variations across different types of countries and individuals, we have consistently found substantively and statistically significant effects of individual exposure to communist regimes on attitudes toward democracy, markets, and social welfare (as well as a more...

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Chapter 9. Legacies and Communism

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pp. 282-312

Soviet communism was arguably history’s greatest experiment in trying to reorganize the fundamental tenets of political, economic, and social life in a radical fashion. Moreover, the “treatment” was of a long and continuous duration: over 40 years in East-Central Europe, and close to 70 years in most of the republics of the former Soviet union. At the time of this writing, we are witnessing perhaps the dawn of a new Cold War between the West and Russia, as well as erstwhile poster children of successful democratic transitions in Eastern Europe wrestling with...

Bibliography

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pp. 313-332

Index

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pp. 333-336