Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-x

Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xvi

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Introduction: A Case Apart?

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pp. 1-14

In 1909, the journalist Manuel Márquez Sterling criticized Cuban publicists for framing the Cuban independence movement as “a case apart . . . disconnected from the common problem of Spanish America . . . with no discernable relationship to the nations of the South.”1 The year 1909 marked the end of the second U.S. intervention in Cuba. Just over ten years earlier, the United States had declared war on Spain, “liberated” Cuba, and subsequently placed the island under colonial control. While U.S. territorial occupation...

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1. Nineteenth-Century Cuban Migrants in the Gulf World

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pp. 15-42

In March of 1897, Gabriel López García arrived to the bustling port city of Veracruz, Mexico. In the preceding two years he had left his home in Cuba for foreign shores not once but twice, due to the war of Cuban independence. Gabriel joined the revolutionary movement in 1894 in his home province of Pinar del Rio. When the revolutionary plot in which he was involved was discovered, he fled to Tampa, Florida, to evade capture by Spanish colonial authorities. Tampa and Key West were hotbeds of revolution at the time,...

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2. Cuban Communities in Late Nineteenth-Century Mexico

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pp. 43-82

When Ignacio Martín Arbona y Domínguez joined the insurgency in January of 1896, Gabriel López Garcia was already in Tampa biding his time and eagerly awaiting the opportunity to return to the field of battle. As fate would have it, it would not be long before Ignacio, too, would find himself at sea. Unlike Gabriel, who had left Cuba voluntarily as an insurgent, Ignacio was forcibly deported after being captured and imprisoned by Spanish forces on 25 December 1896. The young insurgent might have ended up in...

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3. Cuban Revolutionary Politics in Diaspora

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pp. 83-131

Dominga Valdes Corvalles de Muniz emigrated to Florida and then to Mexico with her family sometime in the late 1880s.1 Although her route was similar to that of Gabriel and Ignacio, her direction was reversed. Rather than make her way from Cuba to Mexico to Florida, she traveled from Cuba to Florida to Mexico, where she resided as of 1893. Ignacio and Gabriel’s use of Mexico as a gateway to Florida had everything to do with their participation in the insurgency and the nature and progress of the war, and...

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4. Internationalizing Cuba Libre: Cuban Insurgent Diplomacy and the Building of Transnational Solidarities

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pp. 132-167

Although he would become the founder of the Cuban Revolutionary Party and the mastermind of Cuba’s final struggle for independence, José Martí started out much like other Cuban migrants and exiles. Like the lives of Gabriel, Ignacio, and Dominga, José’s early life as a revolutionary was marked by persecution, dislocation, and exile. While his travels would take him beyond the Gulf World, Martí spent time living in exile in both Mexico and the United States.1 Mexico, a nation with an international reputation for...

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5. Spanish Immigrants, the Mexican State, and the Fight for Cuba Española

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pp. 168-209

On 9 March 1870, Andrés Clemente Vázquez departed Havana for Veracruz on the French steamship, Panama. Like José Martí, who would arrive in the port two years later, Andrés was an outspoken revolutionary sympathizer, and persecution was the cause of his departure. Andrés made his way to Mexico City and found a supportive, if small, community of Cuban exiles already established there. Nicolás Domínguez Cowan, the future regional head of the Cuban Revolutionary Party, had migrated there in 1868. When...

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6. Affirming Americanismo: Desespañolización and the Defense of America

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pp. 210-244

Leandro González Alcorta first came to Cuba the way that many young Spanish men did in the late nineteenth century, through obligatory military service. Arriving to Havana in 1880, Leandro, who had little interest in the military, enrolled as a student in the University of Havana. During the 1880s and 1890s, he completed his service and his studies and was offered a position as a professor in the premier secondary school in the province of Pinar del Rio. In 1896, Leandro’s revolutionary sympathies cost him his job and...

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Epilogue: The Legacies of Cuban-Mexican Solidarities

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pp. 245-258

Manuel Márquez Sterling had a longer history and a much older connection with Mexico than many of his fellow Cuban migrants, most of whom had found their way there during the 1895 War. His mother had sent him to Mérida as a boy from time to time to alleviate his debilitating asthma. In the 1880s, Manuel’s uncle, Carlos de Varona, lived in Mérida and worked as the regional head of the Mexican National Bank, a prestigious and lucrative position. In 1892 a restless Manuel left Cuba looking for new horizons....

Notes

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pp. 259-280

Bibliography

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pp. 281-294

Index

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pp. 295-308