Information and Society
Publication Year: 2017
Published by: The MIT Press
Title Page, Series Page, Copyright
The MIT Press Essential Knowledge series offers accessible, concise, beautifully produced pocket-size books on topics of current interest. Written by leading thinkers, the books in this series deliver expert overviews of subjects...
It is a truism to say that we live in an “information age” or an “information society,” but it is nonetheless impossible to deny that information (along with data and knowledge, if we wish to make to make the distinction) is now central
We now live, we are told, in an information society and this is considered to be a very important development. But what does it mean? And what are the consequences? In answer, we offer a short informal introduction to ways in...
The word information has been used with several different meanings. In this book we are concerned with information in society, in everyday human experience. So we may call this realistic information science and distinguish it from...
2. Document and Evidence
The word information commonly refers to bits, bytes, books, and other signifying objects, and it is convenient to refer to this class of objects as documents, using a broad sense of that word. Documents are important because...
3. Individual and Community
Sensing significant developments in one’s environment and seeking to influence others—becoming informed and informing others—are basic to survival. In human societies, these interactions are largely and increasingly achieved...
4. Organizing: Arrangement and Description
Finding operations depend heavily on the names assigned to document descriptions and on the named categories to which documents are assigned. Naming is a language activity, and so inherently a cultural activity. Here we...
Having looked at how naming is used in describing, we now examine how descriptions are used. Metadata (literally beyond or with data) is a common name for descriptions of documents, records, and data: it is data about...
7. Discovery and Selection
Finding aids of many kinds exist to help the discovery, location, and selection of records and documents. A printed bibliography is a static structured interface for finding records describing documents. Here we examine...
8. Evaluation of Selection Methods
When serious studies of retrieval evaluation started in the 1960s, relevance was adopted as the criterion of selection success and measured in two ways: completeness in selecting relevant documents (recall) and the quality in terms...
9. Summary and Reflections
The word information commonly refers to physical stuff such as bits, books, and other physical media, any physical thing perceived as signifying something: documents, in a broad sense. It is easy to think of information as stuff, but...
Appendix A: Anatomy of Selection
In chapter 7, we noted that the basic structure of information retrieval is usually shown in textbooks in the form shown in figure 9, with varying amounts of additional descriptive detail depending on the purpose of...
Appendix B: Retrieval Evaluation Measures
As explained in chapter 8, relevance is the standard measure for the evaluation of selection systems. It is used as a binary measure: documents are judged to be either relevant or not relevant to a given query. Given a set of relevance...
There are large literatures available on most of the topics in this small book. Reference can also be made to relevant textbooks, including Bawden and Robinson (2013), Davis and Shaw (2011), Feather (2013), Glushko (2013), Norton...
Page Count: 232
Publication Year: 2017
OCLC Number: 978295031
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Information and Society