Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Series Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. i-iv

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. v-vi

read more

Series Foreword

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

The MIT Press Essential Knowledge series offers accessible, concise, beautifully produced pocket-size books on topics of current interest. Written by leading thinkers, the books in this series deliver expert overviews of subjects...

read more

Foreword

David Bawden

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 9-12

It is a truism to say that we live in an “information age” or an “information society,” but it is nonetheless impossible to deny that information (along with data and knowledge, if we wish to make to make the distinction) is now central

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 13-14

We now live, we are told, in an information society and this is considered to be a very important development. But what does it mean? And what are the consequences? In answer, we offer a short informal introduction to ways in...

read more

1. Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 15-34

The word information has been used with several different meanings. In this book we are concerned with information in society, in everyday human experience. So we may call this realistic information science and distinguish it from...

read more

2. Document and Evidence

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 35-64

The word information commonly refers to bits, bytes, books, and other signifying objects, and it is convenient to refer to this class of objects as documents, using a broad sense of that word. Documents are important because...

read more

3. Individual and Community

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 65-84

Sensing significant developments in one’s environment and seeking to influence others—becoming informed and informing others—are basic to survival. In human societies, these interactions are largely and increasingly achieved...

4. Organizing: Arrangement and Description

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 85-102

read more

5. Naming

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 103-124

Finding operations depend heavily on the names assigned to document descriptions and on the named categories to which documents are assigned. Naming is a language activity, and so inherently a cultural activity. Here we...

read more

6. Metadata

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 125-148

Having looked at how naming is used in describing, we now examine how descriptions are used. Metadata (literally beyond or with data) is a common name for descriptions of documents, records, and data: it is data about...

read more

7. Discovery and Selection

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 149-166

Finding aids of many kinds exist to help the discovery, location, and selection of records and documents. A printed bibliography is a static structured interface for finding records describing documents. Here we examine...

read more

8. Evaluation of Selection Methods

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 167-180

When serious studies of retrieval evaluation started in the 1960s, relevance was adopted as the criterion of selection success and measured in two ways: completeness in selecting relevant documents (recall) and the quality in terms...

read more

9. Summary and Reflections

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 181-196

The word information commonly refers to physical stuff such as bits, books, and other physical media, any physical thing perceived as signifying something: documents, in a broad sense. It is easy to think of information as stuff, but...

read more

Appendix A: Anatomy of Selection

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 197-202

In chapter 7, we noted that the basic structure of information retrieval is usually shown in textbooks in the form shown in figure 9, with varying amounts of additional descriptive detail depending on the purpose of...

read more

Appendix B: Retrieval Evaluation Measures

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 203-212

As explained in chapter 8, relevance is the standard measure for the evaluation of selection systems. It is used as a binary measure: documents are judged to be either relevant or not relevant to a given query. Given a set of relevance...

read more

Further Reading

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 213-216

There are large literatures available on most of the topics in this small book. Reference can also be made to relevant textbooks, including Bawden and Robinson (2013), Davis and Shaw (2011), Feather (2013), Glushko (2013), Norton...

Glossary

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 217-220

References

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 221-228

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 229-232