Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-xii

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Introduction: Out of Place, Out of Time

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pp. 3-26

"Where are we?” My husband and I are coasting down a two-lane highway in northeastern New Mexico. Night has fallen, and few headlights besides our own break the darkness. The road has become hilly in the last half hour, and we rise and fall, approaching the mountains over which I see lightning occasionally break the sky. I smell rain, and my excitement grows. I am almost home, and maybe, maybe it will rain, an event I learned as a child in New Mexico to view with almost ecstatic...

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Part I. Borders

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pp. 27-30

In 2010, the New York Times reported on the most restrictive immigration measure passed by a state legislature that year: S.B. 1070 in Arizona, which granted Arizona police officers the authority to inspect the identification papers of anyone they suspected of illegal status in the United States. At the same moment, Arizona’s neighbor, New Mexico, was actively encouraging undocumented migrants to integrate into New Mexican life. While Arizona enhanced its capacity...

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1. A Place by Itself, 1912–1929

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pp. 31-56

After sixty-four years of territorial status, New Mexico and Arizona were two of the last states to enter the union, both joining in 1912, as the forty-seventh and forty-eighth states, respectively. To give some perspective, sixteen other states had entered the union since the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. What took so long? Part of the delay was owing to arguments over the national border between the United States and Mexico, and, later, arguments in Congress related to sectional divisions over slavery. The area comprising both...

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2. The Story Attached to It, 1929–2000

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pp. 57-90

The Southwest entered the Great Depress ion no longer a place apart. Statehood, commerce, and national trends in art and literature had tied the Southwest to the United States. The stories attached to New Mexico and Arizona, however, increasingly presented a place divided. New Mexico was Spanish speaking and traditional. Arizona was Anglo and forward-looking. Neither story truly fit, but both stories worked to cover over the similarities in the region. Many of those similarities stemmed from the shared Mexican heritage...

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Part II. Indian Country

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pp. 91-96

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the Bureau of Indian Affairs listed within its Southwest region: the Jicarilla Apache Nation, the Pueblo of Laguna, the Mescalero Apache Tribe, the Pueblo of Nambe, the Pueblo of Picuris, the Pueblo of Pojoaque, the Pueblo of San Ildefonso, the Pueblo of San Juan (now Ohkay Owingeh) , the Pueblo of Santa Clara, the Pueblo of Taos, the Pueblo of Tesuque, the Ramah Navajo Agency, the Pueblo of Acoma, the Pueblo of Cochiti, the Pueblo of Isleta...

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3. Nations, Tribes, Communities, and Towns, 1876–1935

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pp. 97-118

In 1913 an elite group of Chicago and New York men journeyed through Arizona to visit the region’s Indians. Their host, a Chicago doctor, promised the most exciting of excursions. The adventure began at the Fort McDowell Agency, “where we will see the Mohave Apaches—the real primitive Indians of the West. They will entertain us where we shall have a chance to fish, swim, and live out of doors.”1 Such diversions were typical of the early twentieth century. As American cities, like Chicago, grew and bustled, their more elite residents pined for the relaxation of less urban...

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4. The Story Still Being Told, 1940–2000

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pp. 119-154

Leslie Marmon Silko’s classic work of American literature, Ceremony, begins with Thought-Woman creating the Universe:

Thought-Woman, the spider
named things and
as she named them
they appeared.

She is sitting in her room
thinking of a story now
I’m telling you the story
she is thinking.

Like Thought-Woman, Tayo, the character at the novel’s center, thinks of stories. A veteran of World War II, Tayo suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder. War stories, family stories, and stories of drought...

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Part III. Reducing to Possession

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pp. 155-158

In 1946, lamenting erosion in the Apache National Forest along the Arizona–New Mexico border, the forester Aldo Leopold concluded: “Now we are spending half-a-million to build a road around this place of desolation which we have created. ... This, fellow citizens, is Nordic genius for reducing to possession the wilderness.”1 What did it mean to reduce wilderness to possession? Leopold’s idea of wilderness had emerged in the Southwest. Leopold had grown up in Iowa, attended Yale University’s School of Forestry, and arrived...

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5. The Searchers: Race and Tourism in the Southwest

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pp. 159-193

I n John Ford’s classic film The Searchers, Comanches capture two daughters of white settlers. The eldest dies soon after her capture. The film centers on her sister Debbie’s rescue by her uncle, Ethan Edwards, and her adopted brother, Martin Pawley. Ethan and Martin pursue the Comanches for years, rescuing Debbie only after she has grown to adolescence and become one of the wives of her abductor.

The tension in the film derives from Ethan’s deep racism. A Confederate veteran of the Civil War, Ethan bristles when he first meets...

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6. Own It: Race, Place, and Belonging

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pp. 194-220

In Barbara Kingsolver’s novel The Bean Trees, Taylor Greer arrives in Tucson, Arizona, seeking a home for herself and her recently adopted daughter, Turtle. She finds the region amusingly beautiful: “We crossed the Arizona state line at sunup. The clouds were pink and fat and hilariouslooking, like the hippo ballerinas in a Disney movie.” Originally from an impoverished town in Kentucky, Taylor knows little of the area and has few resources. As she explains to Turtle: “This is a foreign country... Arizona. You know as much about...

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Part IV. The Theater of All Possibilities

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pp. 221-224

I n Oracle, Arizona, sits a curious structure. Composed of arched corridors, domes, and towers with rounded tops, the building, called Biosphere 2, stretches over the length of three football fields. Some describe it as a space-age castle. Inside are models of the biomes of Earth—a savannah, a tropical rain forest, and even an ocean. The University of Arizona owns the structure, and there scientists study climate change and its effects on the terrestrial water cycle. The project is supported by funds from Texas financier Ed Bass’s Philecology Foundation, a nonprofit...

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7. Boom Towns: The Nuclear Southwest

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pp. 225-263

The advertisement is legendary. A little girl sits among the flowers of a field as birds chirp above. She is counting the petals of a daisy as she pulls them. She stumbles over the numbers. Her counting fades, replaced by a louder, firmer, male voice. He is counting too. Backward. A countdown. The image freezes. The camera zooms into the pupil of the girl’s eye, and we see there, reflected, an explosion and, then, a mushroom cloud. The advertisement ends with the injunction to vote for Lyndon Johnson in the upcoming election. “The stakes are too high,” warns the...

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8. Water Is the Earth’s Blood

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pp. 264-293

In The Boy Who Made Dragonfly, a Zuni tale retold by popular mystery writer Tony Hillerman in 1972, the A’shiwi people grow arrogant after a plentiful harvest. Rather than share or save their grain, they choose instead to invite their neighbors to play with their food “in a great battle, such as the children play.” The Bow Priest pitches the plan to his fellow leaders and exclaims: “Think of how these strangers will marvel at the wealth of the A’shiwi, when they see us treating the food for which others labor so hard as the children treat the mud by the riverside and the stones...

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Conclusion: Without Problems, We Wouldn’t Have Any Stories

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pp. 294-306

Joe Hayes is a storyteller, and he is telling a story. Maybe he is telling a story in Spanish. Maybe he is telling a story in English. Maybe both. Maybe he is telling a story at an elementary school. Maybe he is telling a story at a university. Maybe he is telling a story in Benson, Arizona, where he grew up and learned to speak Spanish. Maybe he is telling a story at the Wheelwright Museum in Santa Fe, New Mexico, the city where he lives now. Maybe he is telling a Pueblo story. Maybe he is telling a Mexican folk story. Maybe he is telling one of his...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 307-310

When I started this project, I talked about it with the late historian David Weber at his home in Ramah, New Mexico. “That’s a big book,” he told me. I tried back-pedaling immediately. “It’s only the twentieth century,” I said, well aware that he had taken on far more in his own work. “That’s still a big book,” he said. “I think I’m going to focus on Arizona and New Mexico,” I said, once again considering the far broader scale of his books. “That’s still a big book,” he said. Then, feeling a twinge of guilt over selling short my subfield and with more than a shadow...

Appendix. Racial and Ethnic Categories: U.S. Census, 1900–2000

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pp. 311-312

Notes

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pp. 313-372

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 373-402

Index

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pp. 403-413

About the Author

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p. 414