Cover

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Half Title, Series Info, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xiii

East Galicia ranks among the regions most devastated by World War 1. From the summer of 1914 to the fall of 19IJ, this densely populated Austrian province became a fluid battlefield as Austro-Hungarian and Russian armies rolled back and forth, leaving behind a trail of blackened ruins. In early September of 1914, after a series of frontier engagements, ...

Map of East Galicia

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p. xiv

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Introduction

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pp. 1-10

By the turn of the twentieth century, the majority of Galician Jews lived in close-knit communities and maintained a traditional socioeconomic and religious way of life under the relatively tolerant Habsburg rule. Their cultural, religious, and linguistic heritage made them a visible and distinct minority among their Polish and Ukrainian conationals. ...

Part I. Russian Rule in Galicia

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1. Russia Goes to War

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pp. 13-23

"If we count the rewards we can expect from this war-there is no doubt it is mere madness. What should we expect to gain? Territorial accretion? But aren't the lands of His Imperial Majesty large enough? ... Galicia? But it is full of Jews!" So on September ra, 1914, Count Sergei Witte, the prominent Russian statesman, ...

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2. "Leveling" Jews: Ethnic Policies in Occupied Galicia

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pp. 24-47

In early August 1914, the Russian and Austro-Hungarian armies clashed in several bloody frontier engagements, and on August 18, thirty-five Russian divisions under the command of Lieutenant General Alexei Brusilov penetrated deep into enemy territory. On September 2, hard-pressed by the superior Russian forces, ...

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3. Russia's Internal Front: Expulsions and Deportations

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pp. 48-62

During the first six months of the war, the Russian military's efforts to bring Galicia into line with the rest of the empire demonstrated the gap between grand imperial visions and the realities of occupation. Failure to achieve the envisioned plans was partially a result of more moderate policies of the Russian government, ...

Part II. The Polish-Jewish Conflict

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4. Polish-Jewish Relations during World War I

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pp. 65-74

When news of hostilities reached Galicia in August 1914, the reaction ofJews was strikingly similar to that of their coreligionists elsewhere in Europe. Although they feared and resented the war, Jews joined with Poles and Ukrainians in patriotic demonstrations and confirmed their loyalty to the Austro-Hungarian crown in public meetings. ...

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5. The Lwów Pogrom, November 22–24, 1918

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pp. 75-91

At the end of World War I a horrified Jew saw Habsburg emblems being ripped off building walls in Prague and desperately cried out: "Who will shield us now?"l Indeed, as the Austro-Hungarian and German empires crumbled, state institutions that had traditionally protected Jews from the pent-up fury of local nationalisms ceased to exist. ...

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6. The Polish Frontier Wars, 1919–1920

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pp. 92-113

By the beginning of 1919 Poland had faced tremendous challenges. As a main battlefield of World War I, the country had been devastated by the years of fighting, the unbridled robberies of its natural resources and requisitions of foodstuffs by the belligerent armies, and the forcible relocation of its population. ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 114-118

Such a definition of anti-Semitism certainly elucidates the roots of antiJewish violence in wartime East Galicia. At the same time, however, it does not explain why the violence did not remain a constant, but rather erupted in certain circumstances and remained dormant in the others. ...

Appendix of Population Statistics

1. Jewish Population in East Galicia

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p. 119

2. Jewish Population in Urban Centers, 1910

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pp. 120-121

3. Jewish Population in the Countryside, 1910

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pp. 122-124

Notes

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pp. 125-158

Glossary

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pp. 159-160

Bibliography

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pp. 161-178

Index

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pp. 179-181