Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Frontispiece

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface to the New Edition

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pp. ix-xxxii

A few months after Framing the Black Panthers was originally published, a youthful African American senator named Barack Hussein Obama won the Democratic presidential nomination—a political outcome unimaginable when I began writing this book. From the early days of...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xxxiii-xxxvi

Over the last ten years I have labored in the quest to analyze the Black Panthers’ enduring influence on American mass culture. This project would not have been possible without the assistance of many. As is often the case with scholarly projects, Framing the Black Panthers started as...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-11

On July 18, 2002, ten months after terrorists attacked the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, a Moroccan named Zacarias Moussaoui was arraigned for the third time on charges that he was part of the conspiracy—“the twentieth hijacker.” According to the grand jury indictment...

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1. Forty Years in Hindsight: The Black Panthers in Popular Memory

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pp. 12-29

In an early scene from the 1995 motion picture Panther, a small group of young, restless members of the Black Panther Party find themselves in an ugly confrontation with the Oakland, California, police as they attempt to monitor law enforcement activities in their neighborhood...

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2. Black America in the Public Sphere

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pp. 30-56

Black Americans’ intense desire to see themselves through heroic, selfassured, and defiant figures—such as those in the film Panther—is a product of the legacy of their place in mass culture. This was perhaps best articulated by W.E.B. Du Bois, who used the meta phor of the veil...

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3. Becoming Media Subjects

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pp. 57-90

In the 1960s, Oakland, California, was representative of the West’s economic and racial woes. The San Francisco Bay area’s industrial base— particularly the growth of naval shipyards—was a magnet for African American migrants seeking employment in the region. During World...

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4. Revolutionary Culture and the Politics of Self-Representation

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pp. 91-115

The Black Panthers played to the press, and the press responded with a flurry of prominent coverage. This was more than a strategy to attract attention; it was crucial to the way the group’s leaders understood their mission. The Black Panthers wanted to reach the oppressed and the...

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5. Free Huey: 1968

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pp. 116-144

The year 1968 is embedded in the national memory as a time when social and political unrest exploded around the world. Mass media, particularly through the rise of global television broadcasting, enabled activists to witness and be part of this extraordinary series of events regardless...

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6. A Trial of the Black Liberation Movement

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pp. 145-180

The Black Panther Party emerged during this period as a well- oiled publicity machine, even in the absence of Minister of Information Eldridge Cleaver. Press conferences were held on an almost daily basis. The Black Panther newspaper was a regular fixture in the Bay Area, and...

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7. From Campus Celebrity to Radical Chic

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pp. 181-232

Life magazine reporter Gilbert Moore was one of many Americans— black and nonblack—who found a certain resonance, even reassurance, in the Black Panthers’ expressions of social and po liti cal rage. From college campuses to northern urban communities, the Black...

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8. Servants of the People: The Black Panthers as National and Global Icons

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pp. 233-283

By the end of 1968, numerous journalists, authors, and photographers were engaged in the task of memorializing the Black Panthers and the past tumultuous year. They sought to capitalize on the enormous popularity of the Black Panthers, and to somehow capture the uniqueness...

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9. The Rise and Fall od a Media Frenzy: The 1970s

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pp. 284-306

At the start of a new decade, the Black Panther Party no longer qualified as a young organization—they were bloodied, battered, financially spent, and significantly jaded by their experiences. An Illinois State University professor found that by the end of 1969, 348 Panthers had...

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Conclusion

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pp. 307-336

Scholars, media observers, and government officials have consistently argued that the Black Panthers were a “media- made” movement, suggesting the organization was all style and little substance and that their growth was based largely on their phenomenal exposure. An early researcher...

Notes

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pp. 337-368

Bibliography

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pp. 369-386

Index

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pp. 387-406

Photographs

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