Front Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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p. v

List of Illustrations

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pp. vi-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-x

Spanish colonial New Mexico’s most gifted citizen, Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco, did it all, carving a santo yesterday, presiding as magistrate today. Yet in 1779 at age sixty-five, when he finally enlisted in the Santa Fe presidial garrison, he gave his occupation as labrador—farmer. My preliminary biography of don Bernardo...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xiv

For their abiding interest and encouragement, I should like to acknowledge my longtime colleague New Mexico State Historian Rick Hendricks; Santa Fe santero and modern-day Miera Charles M. “Charlie” Carrillo; art historian Felipe R. Mirabal, more knowledgeable about Bernardo de Miera than anyone alive; and Ron....

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Introduction

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pp. 1-2

“This mountain range is the spine of North America, and the rivers that rise on its eastern slope flow into the North Sea [the Atlantic] or the Gulf of Mexico and those on the west into the South Sea [the Pacific]. It is very cold and most of the year is covered by snow. Cranes breed in it because of the moisture.” With these...

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1. The Cartographer (1713–1785)

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pp. 3-8

It’s a fair question. who was this prefabricated bridegroom who showed up for his wedding on Saturday, May 20, 1741, at the godforsaken presidio of Janos in the Chihuahua Desert? Were it not for surviving marriage and baptismal entries, we might not know of Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco’s birth on August 4, 1713, in the hill...

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2. The “Expedition,” August–November, 1776

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pp. 9-18

Spain’s sudden acquisition of louisiana in 1762 near the close of the French and Indian (Seven Years’) War, along with the subsequent rebellion of Great Britain’s thirteen North American colonies, had frayed relations between the Spanish and English empires. Both girded for war. Colonial strategists in Mexico...

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3. The Original Map(s) [Santa Fe, 1777] (“Plano Geografico” with an “f”)

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pp. 19-34

Pungent smoke hung in the air over Santa Fe on the second day of the new year 1777 as bundled-up Fathers Domínguez and Escalante entered the convento, or friars’ quarters, that lay along the south wall of the church of San Francisco, thereby ending their heroic absence of 156 days. We can’t know their emotions, but the...

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4. The Revisions, Chihuahua, 1778 (“Plano Geographico” with “ph”)

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pp. 35-44

Again in the saddle, bernardo de Miera likely rode south with the outgoing governor. Now he and the commandant general would meet face-to-face. Croix and his staff had finally reached Chihuahua on March 14, 1778. Other self-important, handsomely uniformed contingents could be seen parading around town that spring...

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5. Miera and Anza

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pp. 45-48

Miera’s final years proved as full as his middle years, especially after the arrival late in 1778 of renowned Governor Juan Bautista de Anza. In terms of strategy, the two men shared a near obsession with the overland supply of California Alta, ill-served by sailing ships beating up the coast from the south...

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6. Miera’s “Plano Geographico” Projected: From Costansó-Mascaró to Humboldt

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pp. 49-60

Years before bernardo de miera died in Santa Fe, other cartographers had begun capturing the hard-earned regional data from his “Plano Geographico.” Yet never all of them. Physical geographers first, they routinely ignored Miera’s ethnic annotations. None of them troubled to people the landscape as he had. As professional...

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7. Whither the Waters: From Pike to Frémont

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pp. 61-74

Invited to visit the united states by President Thomas Jefferson, the Baron von Humboldt in 1804 kindly left a copy of his manuscript map at the office of Secretary of State James Madison. Too late for Lewis and Clark, already headed up the Missouri River, Humboldt’s map proved timely for Captain Zebulon Montgomery...

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8. Miera’s Maps as Artifacts

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pp. 75-78

In 1845, the same year Frémont’s “Map of an Exploring Expedition” (and García Conde’s “Carta Geografica”) appeared in print, officials at the British Museum haggled over the price of a rare Spanish map collection. Buried within, among hundreds of manuscripts, lay a copyist’s undated rendering of Miera’s Santa Fe 1777...

Appendix One: Transcription of Miera’s 1778 Revision (British Library)

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pp. 79-84

Appendix Two: Campsites of the Domínguez-Escalante Expedition and Distances Between, from Miera’s “Plano Geographico,” 1778

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pp. 85-88

Notes

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pp. 89-94

Works Cited

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pp. 95-98

Index

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pp. 99-102

Back Cover

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