Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

Note on Transcription

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pp. xi-xii

List of Abbreviations and Library Sigla

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pp. xiii-xvi

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Introduction: Rethinking Boundaries in Musical Practice and Circulation

Linda Phyllis Austern, Candace Bailey, and Amanda Eubanks Winkler

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pp. 1-12

The fifteen essays in this collection reconsider ways in which musical practice and circulation in early modern England negotiated boundaries, demonstrating how music and musicians fluidly moved between social and professional hierarchies, oral/aural and written traditions, and sacred and secular contexts.1 From the mid-sixteenth century to the end of the eighteenth century, musical spaces were elided among home, stage, court, church, and street, and musical collaborations triumphed over national, vocational, and confessional differences. Gender norms were relaxed and reconfigured, and labor and leisure overlapped for the performance and consumption of music. Through patterns of circulation and use, the public became private, the private public, and the musical dicta of etiquette and pedagogical manuals were suspended....

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1. Tudor Musical Theater: Sounds of Religious Change in Ralph Roister Doister

Katherine Steele Brokaw

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pp. 13-27

When she acceded to the throne in July 1553, the Catholic Mary Tudor hoped to reverse the damage her reformist brother Edward VI had done to church music in his preceding six-year reign.1 Contemporary records indicate that upon the reading of the proclamation that Mary was Queen,

suddenly a great number of bells was heard ringing.... And shortly after the proclamation, various Lords of the Council went to St. Paul’s... and had there sung the “Te Deum laudamus,” playing organs and thanking the Almighty, which displays were not customary with them and had altogether been put aside of late.2...

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2. English Jesuit Missionaries, Music Education, and the Musical Participation of Women in Devotional Life in Recusant Households from ca. 1580 to ca. 1630

Jane Flynn

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pp. 28-41

This essay examines the first fifty years of the Jesuit mission in England and its influence on the public and private lives of the Catholic gentle- and noblewomen who actively supported it. The Society of Jesus had been given special authority by the pope in 1540 to promote the Catholic reformation, and its highly educated members vowed to go wherever he sent them “into the whole world, and preach the gospel to every creature.”1 While on their apostolic mission, their “way of proceeding” was to adapt according to the circumstances they encountered.2 Thus, in England where practicing the Roman Catholic faith had been a treasonable offense since 1571, their main approach was to convert the gentry and nobility in their own houses and secretly print and distribute...

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3. The Transmission of Lute Music and the Culture of Aurality in Early Modern England

Graham Freeman

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pp. 42-53

Despite the popularity of the lute in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England, there was very little printed solo music for it in England, at least when compared with that printed on the continent.1 Despite the fact that Petrucci had published the first printed lute music in 1507, English lutenists did not begin publishing their music in print tablature until William Barley’s A New Booke of Tabliture in 1596, after which time the only significant publication of English lute music from before the middle of the seventeenth century was Robert Dowland’s Varietie of Lute Lessons from 1610.2...

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4. Thomas Campion’s “Superfluous Blossomes of His Deeper Studies”: The Public Realm of His English Ayres

Christopher R. Wilson

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pp. 54-66

The works of Thomas Campion (1567–1620) were published during his lifetime in five books of ayres, three masque “Discriptions,” a treatise on prosody, a treatise on “counterpoint” (recte four-part harmony), two large collections of Latin poetry, 1 and a group of elegies set to music by John Coprario.2 In all of these genres, Campion was and is recognized as a major exponent. Defensive tropes on being reluctant to commit his work to publication are found in the prefaces and dedicatory epistles to several of his English works. There is nothing exceptional in this. Similar disclaimers occur variously and frequently in both English and continental prefaces to published books. What makes Campion...

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5. Oyez! Fresh Thoughts about the “Cries of London” Repertory

John Milsom

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pp. 67-78

From time to time, a recording appears or a performance takes place of one of those strange English works called the “Cries of London.”1 These pieces, composed by Thomas Weelkes, Orlando Gibbons, Richard Dering, and others during the decades 1590–1620, and scored for a mix of voices and instruments, deserve to be called “strange” because they surprise on so many counts. Most obviously, their vocal content is borrowed from elsewhere—from the cries of urban street vendors such as fishwives, fruit sellers, dairymaids and tinkers, chimney sweeps, oarsmen, town criers, and night watchmen; but these calls have been embedded in instrumental polyphony, remote from the culture of the streets, and the resulting works evidently speak to a sophisticated audience....

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6. “Locks, Bolts, Barres, and Barricados”: Song Performance, Gender, and Spatial Production in Richard Brome’s The Northern Lass

Katherine R. Larson

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pp. 79-95

Song is integral to Richard Brome’s The Northern Lass (1629), which was performed to great acclaim by the King’s Men at the Globe and Blackfriars theaters, and restaged and reprinted into the eighteenth century.1 The play is not unique among Caroline dramatic works in featuring song as a structural device.2 It stands out, however, for its attention to the spatial dimensions of early modern song performance and, in particular, to the question of how gender shapes the settings framing—and framed by—the songs sung by Brome’s musical protagonists. As he charts the movements of his characters through the streets and households of London, Brome both elides and reimagines ostensible architectural and sociocultural boundaries. In doing so, he establishes a vital interplay between musical self-expression and spatial production....

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7. “Lasting-Pasted Monuments”: Memory, Music, Theater, and the Seventeenth-Century English Broadside Ballad

Sarah F. Williams

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pp. 96-113

In William Congreve’s Restoration-era comedy The Old Batchelor (1693), Heartwell, a “surly old pretended woman-hater,” is tricked into marrying Silvia, the spurned lover of Vainlove. He laments that his downfall will be the talk of the town. He’ll be “chronicled in ditty, and sung in woful Ballad.”1 The broadside ballads to which Heartwell refers were single sheet, folio-sized publications containing verse, a tune indication, and woodcut imagery that related cautionary tales, current events, and simplified myth and history to a wide range of social classes across early modern England. Broadsides had a very recognizable format and visual appearance, one that remained standard for over a century.2 (See figure 7.1.)...

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8. The Challenge of Domesticity in Men’s Manuscripts in Restoration England

Candace Bailey

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pp. 114-126

Until quite recently, scholarship on keyboard sources in late-seventeenth-century England has focused on the identification of copyists’ hands, contents and concordances, and the attendant inquiries about the composers represented.2 This research emphasizes music written specifically for a keyboard instrument, such as suites by John Blow, with modern writers using vague descriptors such as “some in arrangements” for other pieces in keyboard books.3 Much of the other music in keyboard sources is overlooked because of several modern biases: (1) the music is not demanding; (2) the sources contain a variety of genres, including many pieces outside the solo repertory; and (3)...

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9. A Midcentury Musical Friendship: Silas Taylor and Matthew Locke

Alan Howard

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pp. 127-149

This essay examines the intriguing “great friendship”1 between the English composer Matthew Locke and the antiquarian and amateur musician Captain Silas Taylor, alias Domville, with the aim of opening a window onto the many subtleties of, and porous boundaries between, the conventionally separate categories of professional and amateur, parliamentarian and royalist, Protestant and Catholic, and their public and private expression in seventeenth-century England.2 The contrasted confessional and political backgrounds of Locke and Taylor would seem strong barriers to social interaction: Locke apparently converted to Roman Catholicism while in the Netherlands with the exiled court in the late 1640s, later marrying Mary, daughter of Herefordshire recusant...

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10. Music and Merchants in Restoration London

Bryan White

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pp. 150-164

"Business... does not require the polite part of human understanding, or call for a liberal education” declared Daniel Defoe (1660?–1731) in the Complete English Tradesman of 1727.1 Many contemporaries shared his opinion, and it certainly applied half a century earlier, in the period that is the focus of this essay. Both court and gentry were snobbish toward the “vulgarity and stigma of a manual apprenticeship,” the normal route for entry into business; for Sir Thomas Baines, “the being made an apprentice according to our custom is a blott at least in every man’s scutchion.”2 Old prejudices are hard to eradicate. Investigations of musical culture in London in the second half of the...

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11. Daniel Henstridge and the Aural Transmission of Music in Restoration England

Rebecca Herissone

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pp. 165-186

If the Restoration musician Daniel Henstridge (ca. 1650–1736) is remembered for anything today, it is for the collection of sacred-music manuscripts he acquired during his long career as a cathedral organist at Gloucester (from 1666), Rochester (from 1674), and Canterbury (from 1698).1 Recent research has shown that Henstridge was an unusually significant copyist of liturgical repertory not so much because of the quantity of music he produced but for its content (see the first section of table 11.1). Robert Shay and Robert Thompson have demonstrated, for example, that Henstridge copied a number of unique works by Purcell, as well as early versions of pieces that do not always survive in the main...

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12. Courtly Connections: Queen Anne, Music, and the Public Stage

Amanda Eubanks Winkler

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pp. 187-206

Upon the death of William III in 1702, Queen Anne took the throne without incident. 1 Unfortunately, after this smooth transfer of power, strife marked the early years of Anne’s reign: the War of the Spanish Succession raged in Europe, renewed French support for the Jacobite cause threatened the stability of her realm, and partisan factions divided Parliament. To demonstrate support for the new queen and to assuage the fears of the public during difficult times, a series of musical panegyrics appeared on the London stage: Thomas D’Urfey’s The Old Mode and the New (1703), Richard Steele’s The Lying Lover (1704), and Peter Motteux’s Britain’s Happiness (1704), all of which feature...

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13. Disseminating and Domesticating Handel in Mid-Eighteenth-Century Britain

Suzanne Aspden

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pp. 207-222

George Frideric Handel has always epitomized musical grandeur and represented music’s role in, and service to, the state. A volume such as this, however, affords an opportunity to nuance that view: not only Handel’s high status but also the increasing technical and social accessibility of his music in the 1730s and 1740s facilitated performance of the composer’s works and appropriation of Handel himself as cultural symbol in a range of contexts removed from the traditional civic entertainments of the capital.1 A burgeoning market for music in all forms allowed works written for Handel’s aristocratic patrons to percolate into both more public and more domestic settings, seemingly opposed...

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14. From London’s Opera House to the Salon? The Favourite (and Not So “Favourite”) Songs from the King’s Theatre

Michael Burden

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pp. 223-237

It is hard to imagine a more “public” piece of music than an aria performed in situ in a mid-eighteenth-century Italian opera staging. Whether in Paris, London, Rome, or Madrid, it was the focus of an opera singer’s activity, encompassing issues of vocal range, vocal quality, musical style, additional ornamentation, and acting skills. These were part of a performance that encapsulated a singer’s public persona. Such performances were the primary interface between a performer and the public, and were therefore under constant scrutiny, a scrutiny that led, inevitably, to the identification of abuses: Charles Burney, for example, noted that...

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15. Education, Entertainment, Embellishment: Music Publication in the Lady’s Magazine

Bonny H. Miller

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pp. 238-256

From its debut in August 1770, a music sheet was included every month in the London Lady’s Magazine; or Entertaining Companion for the Fair Sex, yielding a total of some four hundred songs by 1805, when music ceased as a regular feature.1 The Lady’s Magazine stood at the forefront of education for women in Georgian England, and its music sheets reflected the periodical’s twin goals of instruction and entertainment. As the century progressed, more works by earlier English composers appeared in addition to fashionable airs, demonstrating that the Lady’s Magazine also served as a medium to cultivate the heritage of British song among magazine readers. The monthly periodical format...

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 257-298

List of Contributors

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pp. 299-304

Index

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pp. 305-317