Cover

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Half Title, Series Info, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. 3-8

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

Extraordinary Science and Psychiatry: Responses to the Crisis in Mental Health Research brings together a number of perspectives on the current crisis in psychiatric research. The idea for the volume emerged following the Psychiatric Taxonomy and Mental Disorder Symposium, at the Philosophy of Science Association Meeting, in 2012, in San Diego. ...

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1. Introduction: Psychiatric Research and Extraordinary Science

Jeffrey Poland, Şerife Tekin

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pp. 1-14

A climate of crisis and controversy exists in contemporary mental health research and practice, stemming partially from tensions within psychiatry. On the one hand, as a branch of medicine, psychiatry aims at clinically addressing the complaints of individuals with mental disorders, including unwanted behavior and the subjective, mental, and first-person aspects of psychopathology ...

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2. Kinds or Tails?

Edouard Machery

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pp. 15-36

Psychiatric nosology, the branch of psychiatry dealing with the classification of psychiatric syndromes, has attracted much attention from philosophers of psychiatry (e.g., Kendler and Parnas 2012), but much of the philosophical debate has focused on a narrow set of topics: whether psychiatric syndromes (e.g., psychopathy) can be defined objectively, ...

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3. Evidence-Based Medicine, Biological Psychiatry, and the Role of Science in Medicine

Robyn Bluhm

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pp. 37-58

At first glance, evidence-based medicine (EBM) and biological psychiatry may seem to be natural allies. Both were motivated by concerns about the way that medicine/psychiatry were being practiced, and both aim explicitly to make clinical practice more scientific by encouraging a stronger link between research and practice. ...

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4. RDoC’s Metaphysical Assumptions: Problems and Promises

Ginger A. Hoffman, Peter Zachar

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pp. 59-86

One of the clearest signs that psychiatry is undergoing a crisis of confidence in its classification system was Thomas Insel’s (2013) surprising pronouncement, on the near-eve of its release, that the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), lacked validity: ...

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5. Psychopathology without Nosology: The Research Domain Criteria Project as Normal Science

Claire Pouncey

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pp. 87-104

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) introduced the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project in 2008 as a novel research initiative intended to address stagnation in psychopathology research. Most research in the United States had until then been organized around the mental disorder taxa identified in the American Psychiatric Association’s ...

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6. The Promise of Computational Psychiatry

Jeffrey Poland, Michael Frank

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pp. 105-136

This chapter begins with the assumptions of the present volume that a crisis exists in psychiatric research and that research concerning mental illness has entered a period of “extraordinary science.” After clarifying certain key features of both the crisis and extraordinary science, we examine the reasons for the crisis so as to identify some major challenges facing mental illness research during this period. ...

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7. Personalized Psychiatry and Scientific Causal Explanations: Two Accounts

Aaron Kostko, John Bickle

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pp. 137-162

Personalized medicine, despite its recent increased attention, is not new (Steele 2009; Offit 2011). Medical practitioners have long sought to include information about the unique aspects of a given patient when offering diagnoses and treatment options. Hippocrates himself is said to have advised that it is more important to know what sort of person has a disease than to know what sort of disease a person has. ...

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8. The Shift to Mechanistic Explanation and Classification

Kelso Cratsley

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pp. 163-196

Despite widespread recognition that psychiatry would be better served by a classificatory system based on etiology rather than mere description, it goes without saying that much of the necessary work is yet to be done. Most of it will be empirical, but there are also theoretical issues that need to be addressed. ...

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9. Classification, Rating Scales, and Promoting User-Led Research

Rachel Cooper

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pp. 197-220

Those who talk of a “crisis” in psychiatric research tend to worry that research based on categories drawn from the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has proved less successful than some researchers hoped, and that a new and more “science-based” classification may be required. ...

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10. Six Myths about Schizophrenia: A Paradigm Well Beyond Its Use-By Date?

Richard P. Bentall

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pp. 221-248

In 2007, the British Medical Journal, one of the world’s leading outlets for medical research, published an editorial by Jeffrey A. Lieberman and Michael B. First (2007), entitled “Renaming Schizophrenia: Diagnosis and Treatment Are More Important than Semantics.” The editorial was a response to a suggestion by some critics of psychiatry that the concept of schizophrenia ...

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11. Looking for the Self in Psychiatry: Perils and Promises of Phenomenology–Neuroscience Partnership in Schizophrenia Research

Şerife Tekin

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pp. 249-266

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder with high rates of prevalence in the United States and elsewhere (Jablensky 1999). It is listed as the ninth leading cause of disability worldwide (Thaker and Carpenter 2001). Yet, precisely what schizophrenia is, how its etiology unfolds, and which treatments are most effective in treating it remain largely controversial. ...

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12. DSM Applications to Young Children: Are There Really Bipolar and Depressed Two-Year-Olds?

Harold Kincaid

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pp. 267-292

Is it reasonable to think that young children have psychiatric disorders such as depression or bipolar disorder as these are characterized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) classification system? The commonsensical answer is negative. Small children do not have the level of development to express the complex characteristics of these disorders— ...

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13. Truth and Sanity: Positive Illusions, Spiritual Delusions, and Metaphysical Hallucinations

Owen Flanagan, George Graham

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pp. 293-314

Contemporary psychiatry diagnostically overreaches. It pathologizes—or acts as if it has permission to pathologize—too much of what are perfectly acceptable forms of living and being. In Saving Normal, Allen Frances (2013, xix–xx), a psychiatrist and chair of the DSM-IV Task Force, laments his own past contribution to the “wholesale medicalization of normality” that culminated in DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association 2013).1 ...

Contributors

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pp. 315-316

Index

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pp. 317-327