Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-viii

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Acknowledgements

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pp. ix-x

This collection had its beginnings in an enthusiastic conversation that I had many years ago in a coffee shop on Commercial Drive in Vancouver, BC, with Lisa Quinn, who was then the acquisitions editor at WLU Press. Based on the success of the previous collection, Animal Subjects: An Ethical Reader in a Posthuman World (2008), Lisa agreed that a second collection, focused on new developments in the field of Critical Animal Studies, was a good idea. The next step was to contact my colleague Lauren Corman, of Brock University, and invite her to share in an co-editorial journey that...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-26

In 2008, the first volume of Animal Subjects—subtitled An Ethical Reader in a Posthuman World—came into being to address what Cary Wolfe had earlier identified as a “lag” in critical theory and cultural studies regarding “the question of the animal.”1 To this end, the collection brought together a diverse group of scholars, writers, and activists whose work responded to the social and theoretical lag by calling into question, from a number of positions, the ontological and epistemological borders that historically had marked the divide between the more-than-human world and the claim to...

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1 Might Makes Right: The Origins of Ethics and the Use of Animals for Human Ends

Rod Preece

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pp. 27-44

Rather than follow the customary path of investigating current manifestations of ethical principles, the intent here is to look to the origins and foundations of ethics in order to see what light they may shed on the justification for the use of animals for human purposes, especially in invasive animal experimentation. The basic aspects of what an entity is to become are, in many instances, inherent in its origins, just as the oak tree is inherent in the acorn. There is something vital to an entity that will often be obscured when we study the appearances of the developed manifestation alone. Animal ethics are continually informed by the assumptions of their origins....

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2 Critical Animals Studies and the Property Debate in Animal Law

Maneesha Deckha

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pp. 45-80

An animal turn is evident in contemporary Canadian and American academia. Investigations of the relationships and interactions humans have with nonhuman animals are on the rise1 and are generating an emergent field often described as “human–animal studies” or simply “animal studies.”2 Scholarship in this area, though spanning a wide range of disciplines and thus challenging to define, shares a common purpose: to understand the relationships, practices, norms, and/or discourses that organize human encounters with animals.3 Within this overarching field of human–animal...

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3 “Popular Affection”: Edwin Landseer and Nineteenth-Century Animal Advocacy Campaigns

J. Keri Cronin

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pp. 81-108

At the end of the nineteenth century there was increased attention paid to the treatment of nonhuman animals in both Britain and North America. By this time organizations such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA; formed in 1824), the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (MSPCA; formed in 1868), and the Canadian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (CSPCA; formed in 1869) had been in operation for a number of years, each spearheading a wide range of campaigns in an attempt to improve the lives...

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4 "The Animal,” Systems, and Structures: An Ecofeminist–Posthumanist Enquiry

Rhys Mahannah

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pp. 109-144

H.G. Wells’ fantastically grim novel The Island of Dr. Moreau (1896) is more than a commentary dealing with moral questions surrounding vivisection and scientific discourse in general. Indeed, some critics have examined the allegorical meaning of the novel with regard to the “mythical” quality of implicit racial hierarchies: working within this framework, the “performativity” of “race”—and therefore its illusory, unreal nature—becomes explicit. The drive to eliminate the “animality” of the Beast Men through scientific alteration, as well as the forced internalization of the Law, is Moreau’s way of containing and controlling the “excess” of the foundational event that...

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5 Animal Narrativity: Engaging with Story in a More-Than-Human World

Joshua Russell

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pp. 145-174

Canadian poet and scholar Robert Bringhurst writes:

Each of us tells stories, and each of us is a story. Not just each of us humans, but each of us creatures—spruce trees and toads and timber wolves and dog salmon. We all tell stories to ourselves and to each other—within the tribe, within the species, and way beyond its bounds. Roses do this when they flower, finches when they sing, and humans when they speak, walk, sing, dance, swim, play a flute, build a fire, or pull a trigger.1...

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6 Canine Cartography: On the Curious and Queer Pleasures of Being a Dog

Peter Hobbs

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pp. 175-202

A trip to the dog park is a trip to Sodom, with dogs of all different shapes and sizes forming daisy chains of dog on dog on dog. Both purebred and mutt shamelessly engage in sexual acts that are hard to ignore, and bring home the difference between sex and reproduction and between sex and gender. Even the spayed or neutered police dog runs the risk of being outed as a sexual outlaw. Canine sexuality (doggie style) will not be denied....

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7 Navigating Difference (Again): Animal Ethics and Entangled Empathy

Lori Gruen

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pp. 203-228

“Speciesism,” “humanormativity,” “human exceptionalism”—these are terms that have been used to identify a perceived ethical problem with human attitudes toward, and treatment of, other animals. Speciesism, akin to sexism and racism, is the view that our species is superior to others in virtue of a morally irrelevant characteristic—species membership; humanormativity, akin to heteronormativity (and later homonormativity), is the view that humans are the gauge or normative measure against which other...

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8 All My Relations: Interview with Margaret Robinson

Interview with Margaret Robinson

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pp. 229-248

Dr. Margaret Robinson is a Mi’kmaq woman, feminist scholar, and bisexual activist who, at the time of this interview, lived in Toronto, Ontario. The following Animal Voices interview with Robinson explores Mi’kmaq val­ues, veganism, and social justice. The interview was originally broadcast on April 23, 2013, in Toronto, on CIUT 89.5 FM....

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9 Rampant Compassion: A Tale of Two Anthropomorphisms and the “Trans-species Episteme” of Knowledge-Making

Jodey Castricano

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pp. 249-268

In 1978, at the Modern Language Association Convention, critical theorist Monique Wittig’s announcement that “I am a lesbian, not a woman” created disquiet in her audience.1 Later, in “One Is Not Born a Woman,” Wittig’s materialist feminist analysis of de Beauvoir’s view of the “myth of woman”2 leads to her critique of “the idea that women are a ‘natural group,’” 3 and to her radical and provocative assertion in “The Straight Mind” that “Lesbians are not women.” 4 As has been pointed out by feminist scholars such as Judith...

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10 The Limits of the “Human”: An Alternative Ethics of Dependence on Animals

Kelly Oliver

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pp. 269-300

In this chapter, I explore mainstream culture’s ambivalent relationship to our dependence on animals, particularly the animals in our homes, by turning to discussions at the intersection of disability studies and animal studies. Critically revisiting the debate between some from disability studies (Eva Kittay and Licia Carlson) and some from animal studies (Peter Singer and Jeff McMahan), over the comparative moral status of animals with higher IQs and some severely mentally disabled people, points to problems with...

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11 Vegans for Vick: Dogfighting, Intersectional Politics, and the Limits of Mainstream Discourse

Garrett M. Broad

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pp. 301-324

Once one of the most popular players in the NFL, Michael Vick was convicted of a federal felony in 2007 for his involvement in an illegal dogfighting ring. After serving 19 months in prison, Vick returned to the NFL as a starting quarterback and has since become a leading campaigner for anti-dogfighting efforts. This chapter explores some of the key issues that emerge when the case of Michael Vick—NFL star and convicted propritor of an interstate dogfighting ring—is approached from intersectional anti-speciesist and anti-racist perspectives. In this work, I make no attempt...

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12 Disability, Animals, and Earth Liberation: Eco-ability and Ableism in the Animal Advocacy Movement

Anthony J. Nocella II

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pp. 325-346

Disability rights activists, animal advocates, and environmentalists form social movements that fight for traditionally oppressed groups. These groups—nonhuman animals and people with disabilities—have much in common, and they have arguably been marginalized more than any other segment of the ecological world, which is itself dominated, as shown by contemporary ecological crises. One way the connection between these three subjugated groups (and in the case of the ecological world, we could...

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13 On Being a Pragmatist: Reflections on Animals, Feminism, and Personal Politics

Lynda Birke

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pp. 347-368

I came of age through and with feminist politics. I was involved in both women’s and environmental activism in the UK during the 1970s, and in both activism and associated scholarly inquiry. They were heady days. But all too soon, the alliances we had built seemed to crumble as internecine strife developed; squabbles ensued over who had the moral high ground, over who was the most oppressed, over who did the most to change the world. And, as women’s studies gained its ground within the ivory towers of academia, so it seemed to me to separate from much of the activism that had borne it.1...

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14 Campaigning with the Enemy: Understanding Opportunity Fields and the Tactic of Corporate Incorporation

Carol L. Glasser

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pp. 369-404

Many moderate animal rights organizations and campaigns increasingly seek to work with businesses and alongside corporations. From animal rights groups buying stock in companies in order to engage in shareholder meetings to campaigns working with non-vegan restaurants to develop vegetarian and vegan options, there are myriad examples of how animal rights organizations are working with corporations that participate in animal exploitation as a strategy for furthering animal rights and welfare. This is a strategy I call corporate incorporation....

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15 Nose-to-Tail Eating: A Prematurely Post-Factory-Farm Biopolitics

Jessica Carey

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pp. 405-428

“This is a celebration of cuts of meat, innards, and extremities that are more often forgotten or discarded in today’s kitchen; it would seem disingenuous to the animal not to make the most of the whole beast: there is a set of delights, textural and flavorsome, which lie beyond the fillet.”1 So begins Fergus Henderson’s cookbook The Whole Beast: Nose to Tail Eating, mass published in 2004. In the intervening five years since the 1999 publication of the cookbook’s first iteration, Nose to Tail Eating: A Kind of British Cooking, Henderson’s book and London restaurant, St. John, had already gained the...

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16 The New Carnivores

John Sorenson and Atsuko Matsuoka

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pp. 429-456

Producing meat entails the premature death (usually after prolonged and hideous suffering) of billions of sentient beings. Thus, activists emphasize that “meat is murder” and call for a shift in consciousness that rejects human domination of other animals through force. While Regan argues that it is morally wrong to kill animals who are subjects-of-a-life and that we should apply a principle of equal consideration to their interests,1 Francione maintains that sentience alone qualifies an animal for moral significance and that animals should not be considered our property.2 Questioning the ethics of...

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17 Rats! Being Social Requires Empathy

Leesa Fawcett

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pp. 457-472

Rats seem to trouble human existence. They follow us around, hopping off boats with us in new ports and colonizing new-found lands with their presence, much as human beings have done since we started navigating the seas. Today, rats inhabit our apartment buildings, subways, sewer systems, laboratories, and our imaginations. Rats are arguably one of the most successful animals on earth if sheer numbers, adaptability, and perseverance are used as measures of success. However, along with mice and other rodents, the so-called laboratory rat is the most commonly used creature in Western...

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18 The Ventriloquist’s Burden: Animal Advocacy and the Problem of Speaking for Others

Lauren Corman

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pp. 473-512

This chapter addresses “the question of the animal” in relation to debates concerning what Gilles Deleuze, summarizing Michel Foucault, calls “the indignity of speaking for others”4 and Linda Alcoff calls “the problem of speaking for others.”5 While many other movements, and affiliated fields of theory, have spent considerable time grappling with the difficulties of representing various Others, including rigorous debates about appropriation of (cultural) voice,6 the animal movements have generally been remiss in confronting the issues that plague political representation, with some...

About the Contributors

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pp. 513-520

Index

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pp. 521-534