Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. iii-v

CONTENTS

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p. ix

TABLES

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p. xi

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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pp. xiii-xiv

This project traces its roots to my being assigned to play the role of King Hussein in a simulation of Middle Eastern politics as an undergraduate student. That classroom experience prompted me to write a research paper, which led to a master’s thesis, which then led to a doctoral dissertation, and now to a book. In a project...

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ONE: INSTITUTIONS AND THE POLITICS OF SURVIVAL

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pp. 1-11

The monarchs of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan have endured in the face of economic crisis and regional political instability by following the spirit of Caliph Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufiyan’s strategy. But how has the Jordanian regime managed to survive external challenges and control domestic...

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TWO: REGIME-LED STATE BUILDING IN JORDAN: 1921-1988

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pp. 13-23

This book makes the argument that the institutional features of monarchical authoritarianism can help explain the Hashemite regime’s survival of external crises during the 1990s. This chapter provides a historical background to recent events by outlining the process of regime-led state building in Jordan. External crises and domestic opponents have constantly challenged...

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THREE: ECONOMIC CRISIS AND POLITICAL LIBERALIZATION

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pp. 25-49

King Hussein severed Jordan’s administrative ties to the Israeli-occupied West Bank in July 1988. The move allowed for the declaration of a Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza by the PLO later that year. The foreign policy decision had far-reaching effects on the domestic politics of the remainder of the kingdom for the next decade. The disengagement from the West Bank...

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FOUR: INSTITUTIONALIZING POLITICAL LIBERALIZATION

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pp. 51-70

At the close of the Gulf War, Iraq lay defeated and Jordan found itself on poor terms with the Gulf Arab states and the Western powers. King Hussein’s neutrality had garnered the support of his people. However, this could not cover Jordan’s foreign exchange debts nor open up the sanctioned Iraqi economy. Moreover, the regime began to realize the extent of American...

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FIVE: MANAGING PEACE AND ITS DISCONTENTS

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pp. 71-85

By the summer of 1993, the regime had grown tired of the opposition constantly challenging the government’s chosen policies in dealing with the existential issues that faced Jordan. Although the opposition in Parliament had not yet blocked any of the government’s draft legislation, it had significantly delayed many parts of the economic structural adjustment...

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SIX: NORMALIZATION AND STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT

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pp. 87-98

After the ratification of the Jordanian-Israeli peace treaty, the regime sought to deepen the relationship with Israel through building a “New Middle East.” The regime also expected that the pain of structural economic reforms would be relieved by commercial ties with Israel and generous foreign aid from Western donors. While in the mid-1990s Jordan did become one of the...

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SEVEN: PRESS RESTRICTIONS AND THE 1997 ELECTIONS

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pp. 99-125

In the context of slowing of the peace process, the growing institutionalization of the antinormalization forces, and bread riots in response to economic structural adjustment reforms, the regime undertook further institutional survival strategies to limit the opposition’s ability to mobilize the public’s discontent...

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EIGHT: A NEW KING AND A NEW INTIFADA

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pp. 127-136

In February 1999, King Hussein passed away from cancer. He was succeeded by his son, Abdullah, a former military officer. When taking the throne, King Abdullah II seemed inclined to pursue both economic reform and political liberalization. However, Jordan’s fourth monarch was faced with severe external challenges in his first years of rule. The final status talks between...

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NINE: INSTITUTIONS AND THE POLITICS OF SURVIVAL: AN APPRAISAL

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pp. 137-156

Since 1998, a series of crises have buffeted Jordan’s stability. The regime has attempted to reform Jordan’s struggling economy by closely following the “Washington Consensus” of economic structural adjustment and opening up of the country to the forces of economic globalization. It has also had to deal with a series of foreign policy challenges presented by war and peace in the...

NOTES

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pp. 157-171

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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pp. 173-180

INDEX

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pp. 181-185