Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. i-vi

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

read more

Preface and Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xiv

This book has been long in the making because of the encounters I had over the past decade. The unprecedented political and humanitarian disasters in Somalia occupied some of my attention.1 Further, it took me several years to collect the materials necessary to write the book. This involved tracing people on three continents who either had information about the period covered or knew actors. Translating some of the original documents from Italian into English took an unbearably long time, and family obligations took some...

Selected Dates

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xv-xviii

read more

1 Leadership in Africa

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-13

Two intertwined specters are haunting the African continent, and most particularly the Somali people.1 They are the debilitating absence of leadership2 fit to meet the complex imperatives of citizenship and national development and the dearth of accountable and effective state institutions that can sustain civic life where leadership is lacking. Inspiring and capable leadership and functioning state institutions are the two critical instruments necessary for development, but each one alone is insufficient to successfully confront the challenges of development and national identity formation.3 Most of Africa...

read more

2 Aden A. Osman: From Orphan to Nationalist Leader

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 14-28

The Africanist literature on African leadership in the immediate postindependence period paid little attention to the early life experience of African liberation leaders and how this defined their leadership qualities after independence. Knowing those early experiences throws much light on the political courses individuals pursued, how they conducted themselves as heads of liberation movements, and their times as presidents and premiers after independence. Without knowing their backgrounds one is left to guess the circumstances that shaped the character of the leader. This chapter and chapter...

read more

3 Abdirazak H. Hussen: From Camel Boy to Freedom Fighter

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 29-38

The early life experience of Abdirazak H. Hussen was quite different from that of Osman despite the general social and political settings in Italian Somaliland being broadly similar.1 He was spared direct contact with the cold face of Italian fascism in his early life because he grew up in the remote northeast of the country and also because he was about fifteen years younger than Osman. However, Hussen’s dealings with British and then Italian colonialism, in his middle years, involved violent encounters that had lasting effects on his health and nationalist character. Further, Hussen’s effort...

read more

4 The Somali Youth League and the Nationalist Project, 1943–1960

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 39-85

Most African liberation leaders, whether Nkrumah, Nyerere, or Kenyatta, established the liberation parties that led their countries to independence. And most of those parties became instruments for the founding leaders’ tenacious attachment to political power, thereby losing much of whatever democratic qualities they had. In contrast, the most important liberation leader in Somalia after World War II was not a founding member of the party, let alone its founder. Aden Abdulle Osman joined the Somali Youth Club in 1944, which became the Somali Youth League the next year, and through...

read more

5 The First Republic: Institutional Foundations of Democracy, 1960–1964

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 86-126

June 26 and July 1, 1960, marked the realization of two of the SYL’s visionary principles of a free and united Somalia, as the former British and Italian Soma lilands amalgamated to form a unitary and democratic republic. The SYL’s principles, articulated in the early 1940s, went beyond union and the termination of colonialism. They called for mutual support among Somalis to build an inclusive country in which all citizens had equal rights. The creation of the Somali Republic provided the foundation stone for establishing national institutions and public culture that would nurture those fundamental...

read more

6 The Second Republic: Democratic Trailblazing, 1964–1967

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 127-185

In the short span of four years, 1960–1964, Somalia reached several positive political milestones. Many other countries in Africa drifted toward single-party order or succumbed to dictatorships (Africa saw twenty coups before 1969). Despite these successes, there was a general concern in the nation that worrisome trends were emerging that could derail the democratic system of government and the development of the country. Among these were the misuse of public resources by some politicians and government employees, the abuse of political power by some people in positions of authority,...

read more

7 The March toward Dictatorship, 1967–1974

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 186-213

The presidential transfer of power marked the height of Somali democratic practice. Osman appeared content with his new freedom as he watched, from his position in parliament, the foundational steps taken by the new men in power. At times he was delighted with some of the actions taken by the new leaders, while on other occasions their deeds deeply dismayed him. In essence, Osman remained an engaged MP, but he also stayed above political partisanship, respecting the dignity of his position as the founding president of the republic. In contrast, Hussen remained equally committed...

read more

8 Conclusion

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 214-226

The American diplomat who authored these words in 1969 fittingly correlated the absence of “internecine splits” and the Somali state “remain[ing] intact for the foreseeable future” with the existence of genuine democracy. Government leaders and the political opposition needed to abstain from using violence and intimidation as instruments of politics for this system to work. Somalia’s most critically minded and eminent journalist in the 1960s, Yusuf Dhuhul, confirmed the veracity of this association in an essay he wrote thirty years after Osman and Hussen left office.2 Less than a month before...

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 227-266

Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 267-276

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 277-288

About the Author

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. 289