Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

A number of individuals have read and commented on different portions of this book. Their help has significantly contributed to the strengthening of this work. I have personally and profusely thanked them all. Nevertheless, I want to take this opportunity to thank my colleagues here at the University of Miami who treated most of the chapters in this text through the American Politics Research Committee. I also want to especially thank Sheldon Kamieniecki, because, despite the fact that I graduated a number of years ago...

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ONE. Local Growth Coalitions, Environmental Groups, and Air Pollution

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pp. 1-18

IT HAS BEEN over thirty years since the United States federal government enacted sweeping legislation—the Clean Air Act of 1970—to address the acute air pollution that was facing numerous urban areas (Jones 1975). Air pollution emissions nevertheless continue to persist at high levels, with several U.S. urban regions facing seemingly intractable poor air quality (Cherni 2002; Davis 2002; Lee 2004; Hebert 2004). Moreover, global warming has solidified into an accepted scientific fact (Revkin 2001; 2002 June 3; Trenberth 2001). The recent global warming trend is in large part the result of human-made airborne emissions of such gasses as carbon...

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TWO. Political Economy and the Policymaking Process

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pp. 19-34

IN THE PRECEDING CHAPTER, I described the structural relationship between local growth coalitions, industrial firms, air pollution, and the technological controls on such pollution. As I have already outlined, local air pollution is an economic negative for local growth coalitions, whose members rely on local economic growth for profit and their overall economic wellbeing. From the perspective of these coalitions, technological controls on air pollution are the optimal solution to air pollution. This is because such controls abate air pollution without regulating the primary cause of this...

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THREE. The Politics of Air Pollutionduring the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries The Failure of Technology

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pp. 35-50

SAMUEL HAYS (1987; 2000) argues that the current U.S. air pollution abatement regulatory regime, along with other environmental regulatory regimes, are the result of the expansion and rising affluence of the U.S. middle class during the post–World War II period. With its increasing economic security, substantial segments of this middle class, according to Hays, moved away from their almost exclusive concern with economic issues, and came to prioritize politically the environment for its aesthetic and salutary qualities (also...

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FOUR. Real Estate and the Rise of the Automobile

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pp. 51-68

IN THE LAST CHAPTER, we observed how Chicago became a central node of the U.S. economy. During the middle and late nineteenth century it became the key transport point for the middle West, as well as a major area of manufacturing. Given that soft coal powered both of these activities, Chicago, and other metropolitan areas reliant on soft coal, had a significant air pollution problem. By the middle of the twentieth century, however, air pollution from the burning of coal began to substantially abate. Beginning in...

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FIVE. The Establishment of Automobile Emission Standards

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pp. 69-88

AS I NOTED in the last chapter, it was in Los Angeles where air pollution generated by the automobile first reached the political agenda. Subsequently, California was the first jurisdiction in the United States to issue automobile emission standards.1 In order to fully understand the formulation and limits of California’s clean air policies, in particular those that center on the automobile, researchers must focus their analysis on economic elites. Paralleling my findings in chapter 3, central to the effort to regulate air pollution emissions in California are business elites whose economic interests lie in rising...

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SIX. Democratic Ethics, Environmental Groups, and Symbolic Inclusion

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pp. 89-102

THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA is the nation’s leader in the formulation and implementation of automobile emission standards. Its automobile emission standards are the toughest in the United States. These standards were most recently tightened in 1998. Additionally, as I explained in chapter 1, California’s standards have been the driving force behind the nation’s automobile emission standards. Specifically, the strengthening of California’s emission standards in 1990, in conjunction with the actions of other states, prompted...

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CONCLUSION. Political Power and Global Warming

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pp. 103-108

In chapter 1, I outlined how U.S. clean air policies are market enhancing. Statistical studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between state-level clean air policies and state-level economic activity. These policies are market enhancing precisely because they help protect local economies from the negative impact of air pollution. Such policies do so by providing cleaner air than otherwise, and thus help to attract investment and people to an area. Clean air policies play this market-enhancing role because...

Notes

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pp. 109-116

Bibliography

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pp. 117-140

Index

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pp. 141-144