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I Am Because We Are
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First published in 1995, I Am Because We Are has been recognized as a major, canon-defining anthology and adopted as a text in a wide variety of college and university courses. Bringing together writings by prominent black thinkers from Africa, the Caribbean, and North America, Fred Lee Hord and Jonathan Scott Lee made the case for a tradition of “relational humanism” distinct from the philosophical preoccupations of the West. Over the past twenty years, however, new scholarly research has uncovered other contributions to the discipline now generally known as “Africana philosophy” that were not included in the original volume. In this revised and expanded edition, Hord and Lee build on the strengths of the earlier anthology while enriching the selection of readings to bring the text into the twenty-first century. In a new introduction, the editors reflect on the key arguments of the book’s central thesis, refining them in light of more recent philosophical discourse. This edition includes important new readings by Kwame Gyekye, Oyèrónké Oy˘ewùmí, Paget Henry, Sylvia Wynter, Toni Morrison, Charles Mills, and Tommy Curry, as well as extensive suggestions for further reading.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
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  1. Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
  2. pp. i-vi
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  1. Contents
  2. pp. vii-x
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  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. xi-xii
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  1. Introductions
  1. I Am Because We Are—Twenty Years On
  2. Fred Lee Hord (Mzee Lasana Okpara) and Jonathan Scott Lee
  3. pp. 1-6
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  1. “I am because we are”: An Introduction to Black Philosophy
  2. Fred Lee Hord (Mzee Lasana Okpara) and Jonathan Scott Lee
  3. pp. 7-22
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  1. Africa
  1. Introduction
  2. pp. 23-28
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  1. The Declarations of Innocence
  2. pp. 29-31
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  1. The Teachings of Ptahhotep
  2. pp. 32-39
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  1. An Interview with H. Odera Oruka
  2. Paul Mbuya Akoko
  3. pp. 40-52
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  1. Negritude: A Humanism of the Twentieth Century
  2. Léopold Sédar Senghor
  3. pp. 53-62
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  1. Consciencism
  2. Kwame Nkrumah
  3. pp. 63-72
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  1. Ujamaa—The Basis of African Socialism
  2. Julius K. Nyerere
  3. pp. 73-80
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  1. Identity and Dignity in the Context of the National Liberation Struggle
  2. Amilcar Cabral
  3. pp. 81-91
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  1. White Racism and Black Consciousness
  2. Steve Biko
  3. pp. 92-101
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  1. From Myth, Literature, and the African World
  2. Wole Soyinka
  3. pp. 102-111
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  1. Feminism and Revolution
  2. Awa Thíam
  3. pp. 112-125
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  1. We are Committed to Building a Single Nation in Our Country
  2. Nelson Mandela
  3. pp. 126-133
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  1. Person and Community: In Defense of Moderate Communitarianism
  2. Kwame Gyekye
  3. pp. 134-148
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  1. (Re)constituting the Cosmology and Sociocultural Institutions of Ọ̀yọ́-Yorùbá: Articulating the Yorùbá World-Sense
  2. Oyèrónké ̣Oyěwùmí
  3. pp. 149-164
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  1. The Caribbean
  1. Introduction
  2. pp. 165-168
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  1. Africa for the Africans
  2. Marcus Garvey
  3. pp. 169-172
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  1. The Future as I See It
  2. Marcus Garvey
  3. pp. 173-177
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  1. The Awakening of Race Consciousness among Black Students
  2. Paulette Nardal
  3. pp. 178-183
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  1. The West Indian Middle Classes
  2. C. L. R. James
  3. pp. 184-193
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  1. from Discourse on Colonialism
  2. Aimé Césaire
  3. pp. 194-203
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  1. Racism and Culture
  2. Frantz Fanon
  3. pp. 204-214
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  1. Black Power, a Basic Understanding
  2. Walter Rodney
  3. pp. 215-221
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  1. The Shadow of the Whip: A Comment on Male-Female Relations in the Caribbean
  2. Merle Hodge
  3. pp. 222-227
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  1. from The Racial Contract
  2. Charles W. Mills
  3. pp. 228-246
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  1. The General Character of Afro-Caribbean Philosophy
  2. Paget Henry
  3. pp. 247-264
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  1. On How we Mistook the Map for the Territory, and Reimprisoned Ourselves in Our Unbearable Wrongness of Being, of Desêtre: Black Studies Toward the Human Project
  2. Sylvia Wynter
  3. pp. 265-278
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  1. Reasoning in Black: Africana Philosophy under the Weight of Misguided Reason
  2. Lewis R. Gordon
  3. pp. 279-292
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  1. North America
  1. Introduction
  2. pp. 293-300
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  1. Oration, Delivered in Corinthian Hall, Rochester, July 5, 1852
  2. Frederick Douglass
  3. pp. 301-316
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  1. The Relations and Duties of Free Colored Men in America to Africa
  2. Alexander Crummell
  3. pp. 317-328
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  1. Womanhood: A Vital Element in the Regeneration and Progress of a Race
  2. Anna Julia Cooper
  3. pp. 329-340
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  1. The Atlanta Exposition Address
  2. Booker T. Washington
  3. pp. 341-344
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  1. Does Race Antipathy Serve Any Good Purpose?
  2. W. E. B. Du Bois
  3. pp. 345-347
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  1. On Being Ashamed of Oneself: An Essay on Race Pride
  2. W. E. B. Du Bois
  3. pp. 348-352
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  1. The Concept of Race
  2. W. E. B. Du Bois
  3. pp. 353-358
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  1. The New Negro
  2. Alain Locke
  3. pp. 359-369
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  1. Speech on “Black Revolution” (New York, April 8, 1964)
  2. Malcolm X
  3. pp. 370-382
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  1. Black Power
  2. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  3. pp. 383-394
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  1. Rootedness: The Ancestor as Foundation
  2. Toni Morrison
  3. pp. 395-401
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  1. Radical Perspectives on the Empowerment of Afro-American Women: Lessons for the 1980s
  2. Angela Y. Davis
  3. pp. 402-409
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  1. Philosophy, Ethnicity, and Race
  2. Lucius Outlaw
  3. pp. 410-434
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  1. Feminism: A Transformational Politic
  2. bell hooks
  3. pp. 435-443
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  1. Learning to Talk of Race
  2. Cornel West
  3. pp. 444-449
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  1. The Black Underclass and Black Philosophers
  2. Cornel West
  3. pp. 450-460
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  1. Black Solidarity after Black Power
  2. Tommie Shelby
  3. pp. 461-476
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  1. The Eschatological Dilemma: The Problem of Studying the Black Male Only as the Deaths That Result from Anti-Black Racism
  2. Tommy J. Curry
  3. pp. 477-498
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  1. Selected Bibliography
  2. pp. 499-513
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  1. Back Cover
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