Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xx

This book had its beginnings in the early 1980s while I was on a research visit to the Rochester Museum and Science Center. Late in the afternoon, I met up with Keith Reitz, an Oneida Indian residing at the time in nearby Pittsford. I had been acquainted with Reitz for several years, largely through my friendship with the late Richard Chrisjohn, the noted Oneida artist, and had spoken to him before about Oneida history. However, on that hot summer...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xxi-xxvi

Through the kindness of anthropologist Dr. Jack Campisi, I was first introduced to Oneida community members in New York, Wisconsin, and Ontario, Canada, and became interested in the historical and contemporary concerns that these communities had and have. I owe him a great debt. Over the years, I have been fortunate to meet and learn from Oneidas in these communities. Keith Reitz and Ray Elm, two New York Oneidas, and Richard Chrisjohn, born...

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1. The Oneida World in New York in the Century after the American Revolution

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pp. 1-13

Chapman Scanandoah came from an impressive lineage.1 He was a descendant of the legendary orator and chief Skenando, the “Deer,” hero of the American Revolution. His mother’s kin included members of the Hanyoust (Hanyost, Honyoust, Honyost) family, prominent Oneidas who had served as officers for the Patriots in 1776 and again with distinction in the American Army in the War of 1812.2 Chapman’s great-grandmother was...

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2. Growing Up Oneida: Windfall in the 1870s and 1880s

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pp. 14-22

Chapman Scanandoah was the son of Abram Sconondoa and Mary Hanyoust (Scanandoah George). On May 16, 1870, Mary, Gar-gea-junta-tar, meaning “Plucking Flowers,” gave birth to their second son, Chapman, at the Windfall community in Lenox in Madison County, New York. Chapman was given an Oneida name meaning “He Moves the Fire,” suggesting that his extended family saw him as a future leader of his Oneida people at the councils...

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3. An Oneida in an African American World: Hampton Institute

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pp. 23-37

Only two years before the massacre of Lakotas at Wounded Knee in 1890, Chapman Scanandoah entered Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, a private school established in 1868 to educate the freedmen.1 Today, most contemporary Oneidas, as well as Hodinöhsö:ni ́ in general, cannot comprehend why some of their ancestors were sent away to a private school for blacks and not to a federal Indian boarding school such as Carlisle. Hampton’s Indian program...

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4. A Global Education: Naval Service in War and Peace

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pp. 38-50

When Chapman Scanandoah entered the Chicago recruiting office on August 6, 1897, naval officers were startled by the presence of an “Indian.” A Chicago newspaper found this newsworthy and presented Scanandoah as a novelty, more like a relic of the past that had suddenly made an appearance in America’s second city. The naval engineer in charge of recruitment noted that the future sailor was “a member of [the] five nations...

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5. Saving the Thirty-Two Acres in the White Man’s Courts

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pp. 61-78

In a brief autobiographical sketch of his life, Chapman Scanandoah’s cousin Chief William Hanyoust Rockwell claimed that he, above all others in his family, had been totally committed to fight the battle to save the Hanyoust homestead and the thirty-two acres of unallotted land at Windfall. Unlike other Oneidas, he frequently stated that he gave up everything—a residence in Rochester and a good job at Gleason Die Casting in that city—to return...

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6. A Native American Inventor in the Age of Edison

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pp. 79-89

In his experiments that started during his US Navy career and carried over into civilian life, Chapman Scanandoah achieved recognition for his mechanical abilities and later for his work as a chemist and as an agronomist. His efforts resulted in the US Patent Office awarding him two patents. It also led to his receiving a significant amount of press coverage throughout his long life. Picturing him in these stories as an “Indian” who somehow unexpectedly leaped into “modernity,” reporters generally ignored...

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7. An Outsider at Onondaga

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pp. 90-103

By the 1920s, Scanandoah, now in his fifties, had become a highly respected Oneida elder. Hence, it is not surprising that the Oneidas elected him their chief, representing them at Onondaga. At the time, his reputation as an inventor was widespread, and his experiments drew large crowds. Most important, Scanandoah and his family’s successful struggle in the federal courts to regain the thirty-two acres had brought them accolades and contributed...

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8. The Wise Tribal Elder Tends His Garden

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pp. 104-114

The Oneidas, including the Scanandoah brothers and some of their Hanyoust family members, were given shelter in symbolic and real terms under the “Great Tree of the ancient League of the Iroquois at Onondaga.” Despite living in these foreign waters, Scanandoah’s residence at Onondaga allowed him and his wife, Bertha, to raise four sons and a daughter there. Residence there gave him access to participate in Iroquoian rituals on the reservation,...

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9. Conclusion

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pp. 123-130

Chapman Scanandoah’s life clearly illustrates the balancing act of trying to maintain and preserve one’s identity in “foreign waters.” He was adrift, away from his homeland for most of his extraordinary life—be it in the US Navy or on land at school at Hampton; at military installations in Brooklyn and Philadelphia; in manufacturing plants in Buffalo, Detroit, Schenectady, and Syracuse; or on the Onondaga Indian reservation. He successfully navigated...

List of Abbreviations

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pp. 131-132

Notes

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pp. 133-160

Bibliography

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pp. 161-188

Index

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pp. 189-208

About the Author

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pp. 209-210

Back Cover

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p. 211

Image Plates

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