Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Epigraphs

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-xii

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xiv

In 2002 and 2009, I published two comprehensive studies of American Indian rock art encompassing the northeastern United States and four provinces in Atlantic Canada. Picture Rocks: American Indian Rock Art in the Northeast Woodlands (2002) documented 45 immovable petroglyph sites, 3...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xvi

This book owes its existence to the contributions of many people. I consider it a privilege to name them and to express to each of them my sincere gratitude for giving of their time and for sharing their ideas, information, kindness, and support. In particular, I must single out two close...

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Introduction

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pp. xvii-xx

This book introduces exciting, accessible, and overlooked archaeological treasures found in the American northeastern states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and eastern Pennsylvania, as well as the...

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1. Northeastern Cultural History

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pp. 1-7

When the first European explorers arrived on the coast of northeastern North America in the sixteenth century, they were met by Indians who spoke Algonkian. These Indians occupied a wide area, extending from the eastern maritime provinces of Canada along the east coast and adjacent inland...

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2. Anthropomorphic or Human Images

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pp. 8-44

Representations of humans in various forms are quite common on decorated stone artifacts and on nonportable sites in areas occupied by Algonkian- and Iroquoian-speaking people. They occur on utilitarian objects such as stone tools and pipes, on personal body ornaments such as pendants...

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3. Terrestrial Mammals

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pp. 45-55

Indians carved images of mammals, fish, reptiles, birds, and other species in nature in a realistic or real-life way and incorporated them into several types of artifacts. These images were included in the production of stone tools and ornaments, made into nonutilitarian effigies, and served to decorate

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4. Fish, Shellfish, and Sea Mammals

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pp. 56-71

Fishing was an important part of American Indian subsistence practices and diet from at least 10,000 years ago extending through the Historic Contact period with the French, Dutch, and English in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. Fishing, including the gathering of shellfish...

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5. Reptiles and Amphibians

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pp. 72-85

The turtle motif occurs on numerous portable artifacts and nonportable petroglyph sites in the Northeast. The turtle is a sacred animal, an important spirit being for Algonkian and Iroquois peoples (Lenik 2009:146–147). They held it in high regard and reverence as a symbol of the earth, a womb...

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6. Birds and Insects

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pp. 86-106

Thunderbird figures and images are found in American Indian art throughout Canada and the United States. In the legends of Algonkian and Iroquoian peoples of the Northeast, the thunderbird is a powerful and sacred being in the form of a giant eagle-like bird. It causes lightning, thunder...

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7. Geometric and Abstract Designs

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pp. 107-123

Petroglyphs consisting of unrecognizable abstract and geometric elements are present at numerous sites and on decorated artifacts throughout the United States and Canada. A variety of such elements appear on pendants, gorgets, stone tools, pebbles, cobbles, and nonportable rock surfaces...

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8. Retrospective Summary: Marking Places and Things

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pp. 124-144

Petroglyph motifs placed on rock outcrops, ledges, or boulders have counterparts in a variety of decorated stone artifacts. Images similar to those on nonportable and portable rock art were also produced on metal (e.g., copper, brass, lead), clay, shell, bone, and animal hide, and as tattoos on humans...

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Appendix: Seeing Portable Rock Art

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pp. 145-158

The specimens included in this book and in the other two I have written on rock art in the Northeast are a sample of what has been collected. Some of these artifacts are in collections open to the public or can be found in online searchable databases of museum collections. If you would like to see more...

Glossary

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pp. 159-162

References

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pp. 163-174

Index

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pp. 175-187