Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-x

The era of United States’ expansion into the Southwest after 1790 has attracted, and fascinated, scholars and students for some time. For educated persons in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the “frontier” held a special interest. The “West,” or frontier, was more than a direction: it offered adventure, the pursuit of further knowledge about man in his environment, and an unlimited potential for success, or, possibly, failure. Information about the frontier—however far away that might be—was sought with the same degree of intensity and dedication during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that our quest for knowledge about space and the universe is pursued today. The opening of the trans-Appalachian West, both north and south of the Ohio River, was an American saga combining elements of audacity, bravery, dedication to a national mission, imagination and foresight for its future potential, individualism, and political ambition, even rebellion, on an international scale. For any of these reasons, and many others, the two decades of history in the Old Southwest from 1783 to 1803 witnessed some of the most important events in American history....

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Editor’s Introduction

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pp. 1-22

Andrew Ellicott (1754–1820) was born into a Quaker family in Pennsylvania, and, after working in his father’s and then his uncle’s mills, he turned his attention to science, mechanics, mathematics, surveying, and town or city planning. His work as a surveyor and city planner was such that he came to the attention of President Washington and the Federal Building Commission, established for the creation of the new Territory of Columbia and the City of Washington. It was his mastery of surveying skills and dedication that led President Washington to appoint Ellicott in 1796 as the American commissioner for determining the boundary of the United States with Spain, per the Treaty of San Lorenzo in 1795, in the Old Southwest. During this four-year project (1796–1800), he successfully completed that assignment and filed his “report,” the results of which he compiled in 1802 and then published in 1803 from notes entered into his journal....

Andrew Ellicott Chronology

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pp. 23-24

The Journal of Andrew Ellicott

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p. 25

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Chapter I.

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pp. 25-43

The author leaves Philadelphia—arrives at Pittsburgh—obtains boats, and proceeds down the Ohio River to its mouth—some account of the river, adjoining country, and inhabitants....

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Chapter II.

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pp. 44-54

Occurrences at the mouth of the Ohio, and down the Mississippi to the town of Natchez....

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Chapter III.

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pp. 55-115

Containing official correspondence with the officers of his Catholic Majesty, connected by a detail of the circumstances which produced it—interview with a mysterious character from Philadelphia—continuation of the official correspondence and detail, with the incident which produced the general commotion among the inhabitants—the election of a committee, and termination of the commotion by a compromise between the Governor and inhabitants....

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Chapter IV.

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pp. 116-127

Containing some account of the Mississippi river—of the settlements, and part of the adjacent country, Etc....

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Chapter V.

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pp. 128-157

Containing an account of some occurrences which took place in the settlement of Natchez after the election of the second, (commonly called the permanent,) committee, until the author left the Town to commence the demarcation of the boundary....

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Chapter VI.

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pp. 158-167

The author leaves the town of Natchez—difficulties which attended the beginning of the boundary—joined by Governor Gayoso and other officers of his Catholic Majesty—Governor Gayoso returns to New Orleans and sends back a communication concerning the hostile disposition of the Indians—Opinion of it—moves on by several stations to the (Pearl) or Half Way River—on the way gets possession of a curious letter—difficulties at the Pearl river—finishes the course of observations, and sets out for New Orleans—arrives there on the 4th of January 1799—some account of the Pearl, or Half way river, and lake Pontchartrain....

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Chapter VII.

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pp. 168-173

The author makes a course of astronomical observations—obtains a vessel—some account of the city of New Orleans—ceremony at signing of the reports—proof of Mr. Hutchins being at that Time a British officer, with some remarks on that subject—leaves New Orleans, and arrives at the guide line on the Mobile river—an observation relative to the Pascagola river....

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Chapter VIII.

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pp. 174-203

The author begins and completes a course of observations—opposition expected from the Creeks—writes to Col. Hawkins upon that subject—leaves the encampment and sails to Mobile point—some account of Mobile river and the town—arrives at Pensacola—joined by Col. Hawkins—interview with Governor Folch—treaty with the Indians at Miller’s place—observes the transit of Mercury—makes a course of observations on the Coenecuh [Conecuh]—returns to Pensacola—difficulty with the Indians—account of the Coenecuh and city of Pensacola—leaves Pensacola and arrives at the end of the guide line on the Chattahocha [Chattahoochee]—makes a course of observations—treaty with the Indians—descends the river, to the mouth of Flint river—makes a course of observations—menaced by the Indians—retreats—interview with Mr. Bowles and a British officer—letter to Col. Hawkins on that subject—arrives at St. Mark’s—account of the Chattahocha river, West Florida, and its importance to the United States....

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Chapter IX.

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pp. 204-224

Occurrences at St. Marks—account of the adjoining country—the author sails from St. Marks—arrives at Cayo Anclote—thence at the Florida Keys—examines the Keys, and Reef to the Key Biscana [Biscayne]—sails into the Gulf Stream—a violent gale of wind—velocity of the Gulf Stream—another storm—one of the men dies—arrives at the west end of St. Simon’s Island in the state of Georgia—theories of the Gulf Stream examined—arrives at the town of St. Mary’s....

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Chapter X.

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pp. 225-246

Encamp at Point Peter and set up the instruments—Provisions scarce—Observations on East Florida—Provisions from New Orleans captured—Proceed higher up the St. Mary’s, and encamp near Okefonoke [Okefenokee] swamp—Alligators, some particulars respecting them—Astronomical observations completed—The river St. Mary’s described and the proper positions for military works on the Mississippi, etc., pointed out—Strictures on those already erected and on the state of military science in the United States—Botanical list—Conclusion....

Appendix

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pp. 247-260

Select Bibliography

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pp. 261-266

Index

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pp. 267-270