Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Half Title, Series Info, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

Figures

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-x

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xvi

I was in a graduate seminar at the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) when the ideas for this book began to coalesce. I offer Jane DeHart unending gratitude for wooing me into the class and, really, the UCSB history department, and then following through as a perfect first mentor. ...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-9

“I am unable to travel in any part of this country without calling forth illustrations of the dark spirit of slavery at every step.”1 The words of black abolitionist Frederick Douglass, written in 1852, were literal. He meant not only that slavery infiltrated every aspect of American life but also that traveling was hard. ...

read more

Chapter One. Nigger and Home: An Etymology

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 10-43

In 1837, Hosea Easton, a black minister from Hartford, Connecticut, was one of the earliest black intellectuals to write about the word nigger. In several pages, he documented how it was an omnipresent refrain in the streets of the antebellum North, where it was used by whites to terrorize colored travelers. ...

read more

Chapter Two. Becoming Mobile in the Age of Segregation

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 44-75

In 1840, after attending the first World’s Anti-Slavery Convention in London, African American delegate Charles Remond revealed the details of his harrowing transatlantic journey to a large audience at London’s Exeter Hall.1 In his speech, he outlined how the system of slavery in the United States corrupted the value of American liberty, ...

read more

Chapter Three. Activist Respectability and the Birth of the “Jim Crow Car”

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 76-102

In early August 1838, a twenty-eight-year-old black New Yorker named David Ruggles dashed off a letter to The Providence Courier and a follow-up to The Colored American. Like other black activists in the antebellum North, Ruggles used his letter to expose injustice on public conveyances. ...

read more

Chapter Four. Documenting Citizenship: Colored Travelers and the Passport

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 103-125

In 1849, black abolitionist William Wells Brown, a delegate to the Peace Congress in Paris, wrote a letter to Secretary of State John M. Clayton requesting an official U.S. passport for an upcoming trip to France. In his short note of 6 July, Brown explained that he was leaving from Boston for Liverpool via steamship in less than two weeks and hoped to acquire the passport by then. ...

read more

Chapter Five. The Atlantic Voyage and Black Radicalism

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 126-148

In June 1845, Frederick Douglass published his memoir called Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave, a reflection on his life in slavery and his self-liberation. 1 The revelations in the book, including his fearless choice to expose the identities of violent enslavers, made Douglass a target for slave catchers. ...

read more

Epilogue. Abroad: Sensing Freedom

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 149-160

In late 1851, William and Ellen Craft arrived in England, and something visceral happened. They reflected, “It was not until we stepped upon the shore at Liverpool that we were free from every slavish fear.”1 When he traveled from New York to England in 1850, black abolitionist William Powell noticed a change so “sudden and unexpected” that he could “hardly believe [his] senses.”2 ...

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 161-188

Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 189-206

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 207-218