Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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p. v

Maps and Charts

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p. vi

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Foreword

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pp. vii-xvi

References to a book as a "pioneering study" and a "classic" give the author pause for thought. My thoughts go back to the 1940s when I first began to investigate seriously the post-Reconstruction era in Alabama. At that time no study focused on the years between "Redemption" and the turbulent nineties, and only a few studies...

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Preface

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pp. 18-21

In 1880 Alexander K. McClure on a trip through the South wrote, "Alabama is rich in natural resources, rich in products and richer in Bourbonism than is best for her people." The term Bourbon had originated during the Reconstruction period and was used by the Radicals to label their Democratic opponents...

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Chapter One. Introduction: Party Politics During Radical Reconstruction

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pp. 1-8

The Civil War left political parties in Alabama, as in other Southern states, confused and disorganized. The ante-bellum parties had lost their identities because of the controversy over state rights and secession. After 1865 the Democrats could reunite with their national party, but ex-Whig, Know-nothing...

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Chapter Two. The Overthrow of Radical Reconstruction

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pp. 9-26

During 1873 and 1874, a dark period for the state as a whole, the Democratic and Conservative party exerted every effort to take advantage of the Radicals' discomfiture and to formulate a unified plan for the "battle of redemption" at the next election. For the first time practically all leaders and factions agreed...

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Chapter Three. Organization and Operation of the Democratic Party

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pp. 27-40

Ever since overthrowing the Radical Republicans in 1874, the Democratic party has retained exclusive control over Alabama's state government down to the present day. To insure this supremacy the party formulated after 1874 methods of organization and control that have had a lasting effect...

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Chapter Four. Threats to Democratic Supremacy

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pp. 41-60

Prior to the Negro disfranchising constitution of 1901, the hegemony of the Democratic party in Alabama was threatened from time to time by disagreements within the party and by opposition from other parties or groups. The most serious crisis developed with the Populist revolt in the 1890's. Between 1875...

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Chapter Five. Debt Adjustment

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pp. 61-78

Throughout Reconstruction and especially in the election of 1874, the Democrats severely criticized the financial policies of the Republican-controlled government of Alabama. They accused their political opponents of waste and extravagance and of adopting policies far beyond the means of a state economically...

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Chapter Six. State Finances

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pp. 79-91

Once the bonded indebtedness had been adjusted, the financial problems of the Alabama government largely centered about the task of maintaining public credit by meeting interest payments promptly. Thus it became necessary to maintain an adequate revenue and to restrict expenditures by operating...

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Chapter Seven. Agricultural Problems

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pp. 92-108

Alabama was still predominantly a rural state, with only slightly more than ten per cent of the population listed as urban. Agricultural problems were thus uppermost in the thinking of a majority of the people, and discussions of them consumed much of the legislature's time. In the first two legislative sessions after...

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Chapter Eight. Business and Industrial Policies

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pp. 109-125

The Alabama Democratic government after 1874 generally proclaimed a hands-off attitude when the question arose of the connection between the state government and business or industrial development. Most party leaders realized that Alabama's mineral, water power, and other resources made possible...

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Chapter Nine. The State and Railroads

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pp. 126-146

The attitude of Democrats toward railroads in the 1870's and 1880's was similar to their attitude toward other corporate interests: a mixture of sentiment for encouragement and support with demands to control unjust practices and monopolistic tendencies. The sentiment for railroad regulation was running strong...

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Chapter Ten. Public Education

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pp. 147-169

Efforts to expand educational facilities and to find adequate school revenue created one of the most perplexing problems for the Alabama government during this period. The state's public school system had been established in 1854 but existed little more than on paper prior to the Reconstruction period...

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Chapter Eleven. Penal System

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pp. 170-190

During the post-Civil War period Alabama like other Southern states faced new and difficult problems in its penal system. Demands on the system grew with disrupted post-war conditions and an increasing number of petty offenses committed by freed Negroes. Similar offenses formerly had been handled to a large...

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Chapter Twelve. The State and Social Welfare

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pp. 191-206

Alabama like most state governments before the twentieth century, devoted little attention or financial assistance to care of the poor, aged, orphaned, indigent, sick, or other unfortunates. The emphasis on economical government with a minimum of agencies precluded any possibility of the state's undertaking...

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Chapter Thirteen. Conclusion

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pp. 207-212

It seems clear that the term Bourbon in its literal sense of having learned or forgotten nothing would not accurately describe the Alabama Democratic party and government between 1874 and 1890. It is true that some of the agrarian Democrats espoused an extremely conservative, Bourbon attitude toward...

Appendix

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pp. 213-232

Bibliography

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pp. 233-246

Index

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pp. 247-256