Cover

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Half Title, Series Page, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Abbreviations and Glossary of Terms

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pp. ix-x

Maps

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pp. xi-xii

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Introduction

Mark Mazower

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pp. 3-23

In April 1941, the German army swept into Greece, ushering in nearly a decade of social disintegration, political collapse, and mass violence unprecedented in degree and scale. The country’s governmental system had been unstable before the war, but despite a volatile history of coups, military interventions, purges, and countercoups, ...

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One: Three Forms of Political Justice: Greece, 1944–1945

Mark Mazower

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pp. 24-41

Nazi occupation in Greece, as elsewhere in Europe, led to a complete breakdown of state and society. The civil war that followed was the culmination of numerous clashes between different groups, each with its own vision of social and political reconstruction. As World War II neared its end, the question of political justice assumed great urgency, but there was no single understanding of its implications. ...

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Two: The Punishment of Collaborators in Northern Greece, 1945–1946

Eleni Haidia

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pp. 42-61

The departure of the occupation forces from Greek soil marked the end of a particularly harsh period for the Greek people. The Greeks were not, however, prepared to consign the events of those years to oblivion; there was a widespread determination to impose exemplary punishment on the collaborators. ...

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Three: Purging the University after Liberation

Procopis Papastratis

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pp. 62-72

The punishment of traitors and collaborators was an issue that preoccupied the Allied government from a fairly early stage of the war. The Inter-Allied Conference for crimes committed against civilian populations, held in London in January 1942, decided that the occupation forces and local accomplices who were guilty or responsible for these crimes would be prosecuted and stand trial, ...

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Four: Between Negation and Self-Negation: Political Prisoners in Greece, 1945–1950

Polymeris Voglis

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pp. 73-90

Koula Eleftheriadou was accused of being a person better known as “Maria” who had recruited guerillas.1 The only prosecution witness was a gendarme who was alleged to have collaborated with the German occupation forces. Eleftheriadou was sentenced to death on 1 May 1947, and five days later was executed at the age of twenty-four. ...

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Five: Children in Turmoil during the Civil War: Today’s Adults

Mando Dalianis, Mark Mazower

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pp. 91-104

“At five p.m. on Wednesday, April 13, 1949, the heavy iron door of Averoff prison was opened to admit me, and my name was added to the register of prisoners awaiting trial.” Mando Dalianis, the daughter of Asia Minor refugees, had graduated not long before from the Athens medical school when she was accused of illegal political activities and arrested. ...

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Six: Left-Wing Women between Politics and Family

Tassoula Vervenioti

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pp. 105-121

It was during the German occupation that Greek women entered the public sphere en masse for the first time. Strange, perhaps, that war and a triple occupation could be associated with happiness and fulfillment, yet even today women members of EAM or the KKE feel that they acted as historical subjects and gained self-confidence, equality, and esteem through their resistance activity. ...

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Seven: The Impossible Return: Coping with Separation and the Reconstruction of Memory in the Wake of the Civil War

Riki van Boeschoten

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pp. 122-141

“We left for three days and returned after thirty years”. This catchphrase summarizes much of the postwar experience of the inhabitants of Ziakas, a village in the mountains of northern Greece—husbands and wives living apart for decades, children growing up without their parents, feelings of estrangement poisoning the happy reunion of beloved ones, ...

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Eight: Red Terror: Leftist Violence during the Occupation

Stathis N. Kalyvas

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pp. 142-183

This chapter aims to question, and help revise, one of the central, indeed hegemonic, assumptions in the study of the Greek civil war: that the Left (the National Liberation Front—EAM—and the Communist Party of Greece—KKE) has been the main (or even the only) victim of violence. ...

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Nine: The Civil War in Evrytania

John Sakkas

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pp. 184-209

The municipality of Ktimenion is situated in the center of mainland Greece, in the mountainous province of Evrytania. It shelters in the foothills of the rugged and extensively wooded Mount Velouhi and is twenty to thirty miles northeast of Karpenisi, the capital of the province, or about 180 miles northwest of Athens. ...

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Ten: The Policing of Deskati, 1942–1946

Lee Sarafis

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pp. 210-220

Deskati is a village in central Greece that lies on a small fertile plateau some 700 meters above sea level on the Hasia Mountains, west of Mount Olympus and east of the mountain range of Pindos. On the eve of the Second World War, it was a substantial upland community with a population of nearly 4,000 inhabitants. ...

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Eleven: Protocol and Pageantry: Celebrating the Nation in Northern Greece

Anastasia Karakasidou

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pp. 221-246

On the morning of 25 October 1945, a four-day sailing competition got under way in the northern Greek city of Thessaloniki, in conjunction with numerous other festivities commemorating two heroic moments in Greek history: the “liberation” of Salonika from the Ottomans by the Greek army in 1912, and Greece’s refusal to allow an Italian invasion in 1940.1 ...

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Twelve: “After the War We Were All Together”: Jewish Memories of Postwar Thessaloniki

Bea Lewkowicz

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pp. 247-272

The second world war brought dramatic demographic changes to Thessaloniki, a city in which nearly a quarter of the prewar population had been Jewish. In 1943, two years after the German army had entered it, about 48,000 Jews1 were deported to Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen. By 1945 the Jewish community had shrunk to 2,000 people, ...

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Thirteen: Memories of the Bulgarian Occupation of Eastern Macedonia: Three Generations

Xanthippi Kotzageorgi-Zymari, Tassos Hadjianastassiou

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pp. 273-292

The first interview I conducted on the Bulgarian occupation of the Second World War occurred when I was sixteen. It was on 29 September, the occasion of the annual memorial service for my grandfather, who was executed on that day in the year 1941 in Drama. My grandmother played the role of informant in this amateur interview. ...

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Fourteen: “An Affair of Politics, Not Justice”: The Merten Trial (1957–1959) and Greek-German Relations

Susanne-Sophia Spiliotis

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pp. 293-302

“An affair of politics, not justice” was how the West German Foreign Ministry in the summer of 1957 characterized the impending prosecution in Greece of a German citizen, Maximilian Merten.1 Why did the prosecution of Merten produce a contradiction between justice and politics? This question lies at the heart of my analysis. ...

List of Contributors

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pp. 303-304

Index

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pp. 305-312