Cover

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Title page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Figures and Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

A Note on Transliteration

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pp. xi-xii

Abbreviations

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pp. xiii-xiv

Preface

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pp. xv-xx

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Introduction

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pp. 1-16

I NEVER imagined it would be easy to enter villages on Naxos, ask people to tell me about exotiká, and then expect to be recounted everything down to the most recent, frightening experiences. I was a total stranger to all but the few who knew me from earlier visits. On top of that I was educated, or at least in the course of gaining an education, and this status difference gave cause for initial suspicion and reserve among the locals...

PART ONE: Local Cosmology

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CHAPTER ONE Naxos: History, Demography, and Identity

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pp. 19-42

NAXOS, the largest of the Cycladic islands (256 square miles), lies approximately one hundred miles southeast of Athens. From Peiraeus the large car ferries take seven or eight hours to reach the island, usually calling at Syros and/or Paros on the way. According to the 1981 census, the island had 14,031 inhabitants...

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CHAPTER TWO Traditions and Values in Apeíranthos

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pp. 43-75

The village of Apeíranthos nestles on an eastern foothill of Mt. Phámiri, two thousand feet above sea level. A high ridge rises behind the village to the west, blocking out the sun surprisingly early in the afternoon so that Apeíranthos wears a dark, somber aspect much of the time. This is especially true in winter when the chill northeastern winds, to which it is fully exposed...

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CHAPTER THREE Cosmology and Morality

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pp. 76-115

In order to understand the exotiká, we must first examine local conceptions of God, Christ, the Panagía, and the Orthodox saints. Taken together, the exotiká and Christian sacra comprise the full range of transcendent beings, a total cosmology that, in turn, articulates a complete moral structure. Virtually each transcendent being or power is associated with a different part of the physical universe...

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CHAPTER FOUR Modernization and Rationality

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pp. 116-134

IN THE PRECEDING chapter we saw how medical and technological innovation has contributed to the displacement of the demonic as a model for explaining natural phenomena.1 Many of the diseases once conceived as demonic attacks have been eradicated, and various daily practices involving points in the physical environment formerly thought to attract demonic interference are no longer performed...

PART TWO: The Composition of the Exotiká

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CHAPTER FIVE From Devil to Exotiká: Orthodox Tradition and Beyond

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pp. 137-161

Thus far I have concentrated on describing a particular locality, Naxos, and the attitudes of the islanders toward the exotiká as well as the Christian sacra. Throughout the remainder of this book I will place the exotiká in a broader perspective by examining accounts from all regions of Greece, Cyprus, South Italy, and America...

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CHAPTER SIX The Symbolism of the Exotiká

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pp. 162-192

The tendency among scholars in the past has been to examine the exotiká individually, as separate beings (Polítis 1871, 1874; Kyriakídis 1922). This is helpful insofar as informants often do use distinct names to denote apparently individual exotiká. Furthermore, this makes sense in local communities that have settled upon their own consistent representations of these independent demonic forces...

PART THREE: Rituals and the Demonic

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CHAPTER SEVEN Baptism: Of Holy Spirit and Evil Spirits

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pp. 195-210

Greek mothers, and fathers too, proved equally unable to expand on the significance of baptism. They said that it was necessary in order to become a Christian, and without it one's soul would not ascend to heaven. Baptism is a mystery in which they participate, but unlike politics or questions of local history, it is not a contested subject open for debate...

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CHAPTER EIGHT Exorcism: The Power of Names

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pp. 211-221

On Naxos I heard only one or two reports of exorcisms having been performed in the past few years. Thirty or forty years ago exorcism seems to have been much more common, as informants on Naxos and from other parts of Greece suggested. Exorcism is certainly not unknown in present-day Greece. At the monastery of SS. Kyprianós and Ioustína, at Phylí just outside Athens, public exorcisms are held at least once a week...

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CHAPTER NINE Spells: On the Boundary between Church Practice and Sorcery

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pp. 222-243

I NOW TURN to a set of incantations that have much the same purpose as the standard exorcisms. They differ in being expressly directed at the curing of named diseases: sunstroke (ilíasis), erysipelas (anemopýroma), jaundice (íkteros), and headache or anemia (caused by the evil eye, to máti). For all these illnesses I shall present the texts of spells collected on Naxos. There is no universal Greek term for spells...

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Conclusion

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pp. 244-250

THE DEPENDENCE of both the exotiká and the Christian sacra upon the same pool of formal elements; the frequent merger of the exotiká with the Devil in thought and practice; and the parallels in form and operation between saints and certain exotiká all stand as instances of similitude between the great and the little traditions in Greece. To these we may now add the homology between baptism and evil-eye rituals uncovered in the preceding chapter...

APPENDIX 1 A Glossary of Exotiká

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pp. 251-254

APPENDIX 2 Xiropotámou 98

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pp. 255-260

Notes

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pp. 261-294

Bibliography

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pp. 295-322

Index

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pp. 323-331