Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

An earlier version of chapter 1 was originally published as “Shalimar the Clown: Love, Betrayal, and the Myths of Postcolonialism,” in Critical Insights: Salman Rushdie, ed. Bernard Rogers (Salem Press, 2013); used by permission of ebsco Information Services, Ipswich, Massachusetts. Portions of chapter 4 were originally published as “Kashmir Pending: Narrative and Ideology in a Graphic Novel,” Narrative Works: Issues, Investigations, and Interventions 4.2 (2014): 108–29. Portions of chapter 5 were presented at the workshop “Conveying Emotion and Cognition in Narratives: Self- Description as a Means of Shaping Identity” (Heidelberg, 2012) and at the Modern Language Association convention (Boston, 2013). I am grateful to the organizers and participants for their comments and suggestions....

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Introduction: Kashmir, Narrative, and the Complexity of Colonialism

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pp. 1-48

Kashmir is an important topic today primarily because of the great human tragedy that has been unfolding there—intensively over the past twenty-five years and, in a more attenuated form, for decades before that. Seema Kazi reports that at the time she was writing (in 2008), the death toll was estimated at 80,000–100,000 (xi; the numbers vary, as shown by the estimate of 70,000 cited by Waheed [305] in 2011). Kashmir had become “the most heavily militarised region in the world” (Kazi 85); in 2004, there was “one soldier for every ten civilians” (Kazi 97). The suffering of the people is only partially revealed by the death tolls. The conditions of life itself have been suffocating. Consider, for...

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1 Understanding Kashmir: Salman Rushdie’s Shalimar the Clown

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pp. 49-70

Anticolonial nationalism is almost always bound up with a myth. In this myth, European powers are the colonizers and (largely) non- European countries are, simply, colonized. Thus, colonialism ends once the non-European countries throw off the political rule and escape the economic exploitation of the European countries. A successful break with European domination, then, successfully ends colonialism. This is the myth of postcolonial emancipation.1 Of course, every one acknowledges that European domination may continue after nominal independence of the colony. The point is not that anticolonial nationalists deny neocolonialism. The point is that there is often a tacit presumption that...

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2 Dominant Ideologies and Their Limits: Four Movies about Kashmir

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pp. 71-109

Having gotten some idea of the situation in Kashmir and its sources, we may now turn to the ideologies that, in their distorted forms, guide much mainstream discussion of Kashmir. In order to do this, we will first consider some general principles about the relation between emplotment and ideology. We will attend especially to the ways in which emplotments may define not only specific ideological positions but the alternatives that are broadly considered reasonable. In connection with this, we will focus particularly on two influential films that in effect present the hard-line or “conservative” and “liberal” alternatives of...

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Breaching the Ideological Bound aries: Three Films Not (Apparently) about Kashmir

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pp. 110-131

Up to this point, we have been considering direct representations of Kashmir—or, more precisely, fictions that explicitly identify their fictional locale with the real place, Kashmir. In such cases, readers or viewers tend to assume a high level of continuity between the fictional world and the real world. Indeed, they tend to assume that virtually all general conditions are continuous— the same laws, political relations, social conditions, and so on. Moreover, they tend to assume a “type identity” even for fictional particulars. Thus readers and viewers are likely to assume that the same sorts of things occur in Kashmir as occur in the story, even if the particular story events did not occur. In...

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4 Kashmiri Alternatives: Rival Ideologies in Three Anglophone Novels

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pp. 132-175

Up to this point, we have largely set aside the observations and attitudes of Kashmiris themselves, except insofar as these figure in polling data and the like. We began our examination of Kashmir with Salman Rushdie’s novel Shalimar the Clown. Though of Kashmiri ancestry, Rushdie was born and raised outside Kashmir. After that, we have focused on film. Again, it is valuable to consider film since dominant political ideology is formed and disseminated to a great extent through mass media. In keeping with this, the collaborative nature of film production makes it likely that individual idiosyncrasy of expression and representation will be lessened. The possibility of individual dissent from...

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5 Colonial Violence and Scapegoating: A Poem about Majorities and Minorities

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pp. 176-199

In the preceding chapters, we have been concerned primarily with the cognitive, affective, and group dynamical features of the main identity groups defining colonialism—the colonial power and the colonized populace. However, the relation between the colonizer and the colonized has implications for more global and more local interactions. Thus there are both supra- and subcolonial identity relations and associated ideologies. The subcolonial relations are perhaps particularly important in their development of what might be called...

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6 Fractured Tales and Colonial Traumas: Disfigured Stories in Kashmiri Short Fiction

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pp. 200-215

Though it may not be clear from the preceding analyses, the most important narrative prototype for Kashmir, after the heroic, is the sacrificial. As noted in the introduction to this book, the sacrificial narrative— with its depiction of seduction, then sin, leading to in-group devastation— tends to become prominent in nationalism when the condition of the home society is so weak (or devastated) that it precludes the possibility of any full military confrontation of the heroic type. The subnational predominance of heroic and sacrificial emplotments is consistent with findings in political psychology. Specifically, research...

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Afterword: Ending the Trauma: What Can Be Done?

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pp. 216-226

The Kashmiri stories considered in chapter 6 are disfigured for two reasons. One concerns the past; the other concerns the future. First and fundamentally, the authors’ distortion of narrative prototypes results from their sense that the events of recent Kashmiri history are incomprehensible. Narrative structures that we would ordinarily use to make sense of those events simply do not apply. At the same time, part of the reason such structures do not apply is that they extend from the past into the future. They imply resolution, even if it is a tragic resolution. However, these authors for the most part cannot envision anything other than an unprogressing repetition of past traumas....

Notes

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pp. 227-248

Works Cited

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pp. 249-268

Index

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pp. 269-280