Cover

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Half Title, Series info, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. v-vii

List of Maps

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xiv

The word acknowledgment strikes me as meaning a cursory nod to those who played a supporting role in the production of this book. The word suggests the obligatory and dutiful recognition of those who have guided and assisted me during the oftentimes lonely and always demanding process of writing this manuscript. To me, the word falls far short of the mark. ...

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Introduction: Masters and Mechanics

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pp. 1-14

In November 1862, Ulysses S. Grant, commanding the Union Army of the Tennessee, considered Vicksburg the key to his western campaign and thus critical to ending the War of the Rebellion. Six times he had tried to reach dry ground east of the city as a staging area for his army. Six times he had failed. ...

Part I: The Education and Management Gap: Schooling, Business, and Culture In Mid-Nineteenth-Century America

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pp. 15-16

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1. Common School Reform and Science Education

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pp. 17-33

As Colonel Keigwin’s men swatted mosquitoes and kept a keen eye out for alligators, perhaps some soldiers’ thoughts turned to life before the war. Standing in knee-high water and feeling the bone-chilling dampness, these soldiers may have dreamed of the warmth of hearth and home and of daily work that did not require dodging Confederate bullets and artillery shells. ...

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2. Mechanics’ Institutes and Agricultural Fairs: Transmitting Knowledge and Information in Antebellum America

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pp. 34-53

Throughout the antebellum period, patterns developed in the economic fabric of the three regions of the country. Geography played a role in establishing favorable conditions for particular economic development: fertile soil and favorable growing conditions in the South, important river systems in the West, and running streams and woodlands in the North. ...

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3. Building the Railroads: Early Development of the Modern Management System

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pp. 54-66

Advances in technology and improvements in machinery and in the exchange of information were closely aligned with railroad development in the United States in the antebellum period. For example, the use of coal for smelting led to enhanced iron production, while improvements in metal-working tools and the availability of interchangeable parts created more sophisticated machinery. ...

Part II: Skills Go To War

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pp. 67-68

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4. Wanted: Volunteer Engineers

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pp. 69-94

Just three months after the fall of Fort Sumter, new and untested Union and Confederate armies first drew blood thirty miles southwest of Washington, DC, near a railroad crossroads called Manassas Junction and a river called Bull Run. Both sides believed this clash of arms would settle the question of an independent Confederacy. It did not. ...

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5. Early Successes and Failures: Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, Island No. 10, and Middle Tennessee

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pp. 95-115

Beginning in 1862, the Union campaign to strike deep into the Confederate heartland took shape. Ingenuity and innovation led to the development of the United States Military Railroad and created a network for moving a massive volume of men, horses, equipment, ordnance, and supplies into and across challenging terrains. ...

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6. McClellan Tests His Engineers: The Peninsula Campaign, 1862

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pp. 116-132

In the spring of 1862, as Bissell’s Engineers and Colonel Innes’s 1st Michigan cut canals through flooded lowlands and repaired and rebuilt damaged railroad tracks and bridges in Tennessee, General George McClellan prepared his Army of the Potomac engineers for the first great offensive of the war, targeting the Confederate capital of Richmond. ...

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7. The Birth of the United States Military Railroad: Thomas Scott, Daniel McCallum, and Herman Haupt

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pp. 133-147

The Union army’s Engineer Brigade and Battalion were not alone in facing considerable and sometimes overwhelming challenges in the spring of 1862. With supply lines critical to McClellan’s potential success, the railroads would be pressed into service. To operate efficiently, they would require sound management drawing on the resources available. ...

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8. Summer–Fall 1862: Maryland, Kentucky, and Tennessee

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pp. 148-166

In the eastern theater in the late summer and fall of 1862, engineering failures cost both Confederate General Robert E. Lee and the new Union commander, Major General Ambrose E. Burnside, who replaced McClellan in October, the chance for great battlefield victories. ...

Part III: Applied Engineering

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9. Vicksburg

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pp. 169-205

The strategic significance of Vicksburg has been a topic of debate among historians for several decades. In the epic narratives of the war by James McPherson, Bruce Catton, and Shelby Foote, the capture of Vicksburg tore the Confederacy in two, making it impossible for Southerners living in the eastern half of the country to reap the benefits of important supplies that, with Vicksburg still in Confederate hands, would have flowed from the west and sustained the war effort. ...

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10. Gettysburg

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pp. 206-220

During the third year of the war, the differences between Union and Confederate railroad management, engineering, and use of infantry as effective engineers or pioneers grew increasingly apparent. As operations became more complex and the logistical support for those operations became more critical, these differences highlighted one of the central reasons for Union success and Confederate setbacks. ...

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11. Chattanooga

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pp. 221-240

After the Battle of Stones River in late December 1862, which pushed the Confederates south, out of Tennessee, and fired Northern hope that victory could be won in the western theater, Major General William Rosecrans began organizing for a major offensive into northern Alabama and Georgia. ...

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12. The Red River and Petersburg

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pp. 241-263

At the corner of Third Street and Vine sat the majestic Burnet House, Cincinnati’s handsomest hotel. The Illustrated London News called the neoclassically styled, golden-domed, five-story building “the finest hotel in the world.”1 There, in March 1864, generals Grant and Sherman met to plan the spring campaigns, which they believed would finally bring the Confederacy to its knees. ...

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13. Atlanta and the Carolina Campaigns

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pp. 264-288

Despite President Lincoln’s dour prediction, in the summer of 1864 there was still time to bring about the victory the citizens of the United States needed to persuade them that the war was worth continuing and that Lincoln was the man to continue to lead them. With Grant bogged down in Virginia, the best hope was for Sherman to take Atlanta—a difficult enterprise. ...

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Conclusion: Know-How Triumphant

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pp. 289-306

The day after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, Lee wrote his Farewell Address, opening with: “After four years of arduous service, marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude, the Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources.”1 ...

Notes

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pp. 307-354

Essay on Sources

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pp. 355-358

Index

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pp. 359-369