Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. i-vi

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

A Note on Authorship

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-x

Epigraph

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xiv

read more

Introduction: What You Can See When You Stop Looking for What Isn’t There

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-10

We laughed when we came upon this wonderful apothegm of Judge’s while coming close to the end of writing this book and composing the introduction.2 Judge’s remarks reflected conclusions to which we had come early on when we discovered that we needed to “untranslate” religio and thrēskeia to return them to their original contexts, and to allow the contexts to convey the range of their meanings. This book, generated by semantic studies of Latin religio and Greek thrēskeia, has as its project to see what it was possible to see when we ceased to look for...

Religio

PART I: Mapping the Word

read more

ONE. Religio without “Religion”

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 15-38

In the following chapters, I am going to try, with as much patience as I am capable of, to remove a mountain—one spoonful at a time. The mountain I will be attempting to remove is the word “religion” used to translate Latin religio. Like an archaeologist, my goal is to show that this huge “tell” covers a wonderfully interesting world that can only be revealed by its removal. My purpose is to uncover a way of life occluded by our conceptions and translations and to reconceptualize a particular set of phenomena in a way that will enhance our...

read more

TWO. The Ciceronian Turn

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 39-52

The tense self- regulating mechanisms of the ancient religiones— doubt, hesitation, inhibition, and anxiety— governed most effectively in the house and village and small face-to-face culture. The ancient balancing systems of religio ceased adequately to discipline the increasingly complex, urbanized, and cosmopolitan Roman empire. Both the growing centralized and hierarchical state powers as well as the disruptions of those powers in the century of civil wars overwhelmed and undermined the informal, flexible, and often arbitrary system...

PART II: Case Study: Tertullian

read more

THREE. Preface to Tertullian

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 55-59

In the large body of the surviving works of the African Christian Tertullian [ca. 160 C.E.–ca. 220 C.E.], the first major Latin Christian writer, the language of the ancient Romans went through many changes. In reading slowly through these works, I sought to discover whether and how and why the Latin word religio changed its contexts and purposes. What I discovered, which I will try to articulate in the following chapters, was that Tertullian preserved many of the ancient meanings of religio, eliminated many others, and pressed the word...

read more

FOUR. Segregated by a Perfect Fear

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 60-73

If tension, anxiety, hesitation, and inhibition were the motive forces of the ancient Roman religiones, a greatly intensified, focused, and sacralized fear is central to understanding Tertullian’s strategies of thought in his separatist or segregationist mode. “Fear,” Tertullian says, “is the foundation of salvation.” (Timor fundamentum salutis est [De cultu feminarum 2.2.2].) Like the light of the sun captured and concentrated by a pinhole lens, Tertullian’s timor, his metus, sufficiently focused and intensified, turned the world upside down producing the cauterizing fire through which...

read more

FIVE. Segregated by a Perfect Fear. The Terrible War Band of the Anti-Emperor: The Coniuratio and the Sacramentum

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 74-95

The non-Christian Caecilius of Minucius Felix offered a famous description of the Christians in terms highly reminiscent of Livy’s description of the coniuratio of the Bacchants: They were a hateful and spiteful rabble, a plebs profanae coniurationis composed of ignorant men and credulous women who met in secret at night for strange fasts and “inhuman” meals, ridiculing the sacra, despising the temples, the gods, and the priesthoods along with the marks of honor and purple robes of the magistrates. These sociopaths could not be governed even by threats...

read more

SIX. Governed by a Perfect Fear

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 96-104

The Roman historian Tacitus (56–117 C.E.), believed that there had once been a time when humans did not need to be governed by fear (metus). The most ancient mortals (vetustis-simi mortalium) had been restrained by pudor and modestia and had sought nothing disconsonant with the mores. But when equality (aequalitas) was replaced with self- serving ambition (ambitio) the government of shame (pudor) and self-restraint (modestia) were replaced by coercion (vis) and fear (metus)...

read more

SEVEN. Precarious Integration. Managing the Fears of the Romans: Tertullian on Tenterhooks

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 105-118

At the beginning of his first treatise against Marcion, Tertullian evoked the world of the nomadic Scythians. He was endeavoring to arouse the shuddering horrors of his reader for the “Pontic” heretic who, like Diogenes the Cynic, emerged from the wastes of the Black Sea (Adversus Marcionem 1.3). Otherwise, there is little in the way of landscape in Tertullian.1 The evolution that Tertullian desired—for farms to replace forest and wilderness, herds to replace wild beasts, cities to replace...

Thrēskeia

PART I: Mapping the Word

read more

EIGHT. Imagine No Thrēskeia: The Task of the Untranslator

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 123-134

If religio is traditionally given as the Latin word for “religion,” thrēskeia is cited as the ancient Greek one (and indeed, in Modern Greek, that is its meaning). In this regard, the Greek word is as much a false friend as the word religio is itself. In other ways, however, the two aren’t quite compatible in that the Latin word is attested much more widely and richly than the Greek. Moreover, as has been shown in earlier chapters, studying religio in the earlier periods gives access to an entire cultural system that has been named here the...

read more

NINE. The Thrēskeia of the Judaeans: Josephus and The New Testament

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 135-152

In this chapter, I propose to look at Palestinian Judaean writers of the period of the first century C.E. to see how thrēskeia functions in their texts and thought. In Greek-writing Judaean authors are several instances of the use of thrēskeia that are seemingly unambiguously positive in interpretation. First is Josephus: first, in part because (as discussed later herein and also in the next two chapters of this book) the richest attestation of thrēskeia in antiquity is in his works. Although I will be treating him extensively in the next two chapters, I would like to introduce...

PART II: Case Study: Josephus

read more

TEN. Josephus without Judaism: Nomos, Eusebeia, Thrēskeia

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 155-177

In Chapters 8 and 9, I have shown the complexity of the semantic range of the Greek word thrēskeia. It is especially important to recapitulate the point that this word refers to “cult” in both very negative and positive valuations, and these nuances are fairly neatly divided in the archive between two corpora— literary and epigraphic— with the literary material tending strongly toward the pole of associating thrēskeia with deisidaimonia and therefore the excessive, useless, and untrammeled in cultic be havior as opposed to eusebeia. The inscriptional material...

read more

ELEVEN. A Jewish Actor in the Audience: Josephan Doublespeak

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 178-199

Abandoning religion as an analytic category enables one also to see how consonant Josephus is in spirit and tone with other Roman writers of his time and place, negotiating their lives and dignity under conditions of Imperial tyranny. Like Tacitus and many others, Josephus was able to mobilize facility with language and rhetoric to produce a studied ambiguity within his writing. To see how thrēskeia functions within that discursive project, I first spend time on establishing the grounds of Josephan ambiguity per se. As Shadi Bartsch has demonstrated, it is in the very nature...

read more

TWELVE. A Glance at the Future: Thrēskeia and the Literature of Apologetic, First to Third Centuries C.E.

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 200-210

Similarly to what is found in Tertullian for religio, in literary contexts that can be classified broadly as apologetic in nature, one shall be able to see quite a different usage of thrēskeia than the equivocation of Josephus or the negatively tinged ones of most other Greek writers, including Judaeo-Greek.

Thrēskeia among the Apologists

Earlier, in Chapter 9, “The Thrēskeia of the Judaeans: Josephus and The New Testament,” I showed that for Philo, thrēskeia usually expresses...

read more

Conclusion: What You Find When You Stop Looking for What Isn’t There

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 211-214

Our readers will surely have noticed two “I’s” in this book: two speakers with distinct voices but a perhaps surprising degree of agreement in substance between them. This book is the product of the confluence of two projects that we were working on respectively about five years ago. Barton was studying the Roman sacrificial system (to which she will now return), and Boyarin was tracing the genealogy of “Judaism” (to which he will now return). At a certain point, reading each other’s early drafts, we realized that the propaedeutic for both projects was similar: a close study of the...

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 215-216

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 217-290

Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 291-302

Index of Ancient Texts

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 303-304

General Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 305-310