Cover

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Half Title, Title Page, Copyright

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Abstract

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p. v

This volume on sixteenth-century Contact, from Labrador to Lake Ontario, focuses on European goods found in Native contexts. It began as a conference session where speakers reported their finds showing sixteenth-century Contact relations. In this volume, the authors analyse early Contact networks from various geographic standpoints. ...

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Résumé

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p. vi

Cet ouvrage a germé lors d’une rencontre de chercheurs venus présenter leurs « données et arguments » sur le Contact au XVIe siècle, du Labrador au lac Ontario. Se concentrant sur les biens européens retrouvés dans différents contextes autochtones, les auteurs analysent les premiers réseaux du Contact tels qu’ils les aperçoivent à partir de leurs divers points de vue géographiques. ...

Table of Contents

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pp. vii-xviii

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Foreword

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pp. xix-xx

This volume addresses a large gap in the history of Canada and does so in a thorough and thoughtful manner. The sixteenth century has long been the preserve of historians. In part, this is the result of a rich documentary record, one that traces an ever greater European interest in what was, for them, a New World. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-8

This volume officially grew out of a session that Claude Chapdelaine and I organized at the January 2014 meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA) in Québec City. Its true origin, however, lay in many hallway and lab conversations, often toward the end of the day. ...

Part I: The Gulf of Saint Lawrence

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Chapter 1: Meeting in the Straits: Intersecting Inuit and European Trajectories in Southern Labrador

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pp. 11-30

This volume focuses predominantly on the contact between European and Indigenous populations in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and toward the Great Lakes to the west, but the influence of Contact also radiated to the northeast, particularly along the Strait of Belle Isle. Our view is that the strait, and southern Labrador as a whole, was a crossroads for a host of different groups (Figure 1.1). ...

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Chapter 2: Travelling Ceramics: Basque Networks and Identities in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence

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pp. 31-56

Basque whaling and fishing sites are the best-defined group of sixteenth-century European occupations in Canada. The material culture from these sites is highly distinctive compared to other European occupations in the Americas. Ceramics are among the most diagnostic elements, but remain problematic. ...

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Chapter 3: Intertwined Enigmas: Basques and Saint Lawrence Iroquoians in the Sixteenth Century

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pp. 57-76

Two groups that figure prominently in the sixteenth-century record are also unique to this period, seeming to disappear before European colonisation. These groups are Basque whalers from Spain and Saint Lawrence Iroquoians. Each has been extensively studied, but the reasons for their rise to prominence as well as their eclipse have long remained enigmatic. ...

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Chapter 4: Beads and Trade Routes: Tracing Sixteenth-Century Beads around the Gulf and into the Saint Lawrence Valley

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pp. 77-116

Archaeologists have tended to assume a “French or Basque” origin for the earliest European trade goods found in Native contexts around the lower Great Lakes and it is generally presumed that these goods arrived via the Saint Lawrence Valley. ...

Part II: The Fluvial Networks

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Chapter 5: Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, Algonquians, and Europeans in the Saint Lawrence Estuary between 1500 and 1650

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pp. 119-148

At Tadoussac, two giants meet, the Saguenay and the Saint Lawrence Rivers. Their fresh and salt waters mix and generate strong upwelling currents that are conducive to creating a dense and varied marine biomass. Whales, seals, and walrus could be captured year round where the waters remained ice-free. ...

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Chapter 6: Saint Lawrence Iroquoians as Middlemen or Observers: Review of Evidence in the Middle and Upper Saint Lawrence Valley

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pp. 149-170

Revisiting facts and ideas of Contact in the Saint Lawrence Valley brings to the forefront an historical context that has been reconstructed by leading scholars in the fields of history, ethnohistory, and archaeology, to establish baselines of critical archival and archaeological data. ...

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Chapter 7: The Northern Route, between the Saguenay and Georgian Bay: Construction of a Hypothesis

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pp. 171-198

While the inland route along the Saint Lawrence lowlands was controlled successively by Saint Lawrence Iroquoians and French colonists during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, a separate and distinctive circulation network can be traced farther north, leading through Algonquian uplands. ...

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Chapter 8: Evidence for Sixteenth-Century Exchange: The Ottawa and Upper Saint Lawrence Waterways

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pp. 199-216

While we know that items such as red cloth were traded with a Native community in what is now northeastern New Brunswick at the Vinland settlement of Hop for a year or so around 1000 AD (Wallace 2006: 21–22 and pers. comm., 2013), we have no idea how far these archaeologically invisible commodities travelled upriver to the west, ...

Part III: The Lower Great Lakes

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Chapter 9: Sixteenth-Century Contact Between the Saint Lawrence Valley and the Upper Trent Valley

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pp. 219-234

The area that is generally (and somewhat inaccurately) referred to as “the Upper Trent Valley” comprises part of the Kawartha Lakes and some of the surrounding area (Figure 9.1). The Kawarthas are a system of interconnected lakes and rivers to the east of Lake Simcoe, running along the southern margin of the Canadian Shield. ...

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Chapter 10: Looking Eastward: Fifteenth- and Early Sixteenth-Century Exchange Systems of the North Shore Ancestral Wendat

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pp. 235-256

The Huron, or Wendat, were the northernmost of the Iroquoians, inhabiting in the seventeenth century the area between Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay known historically as Wendake (Huronia). Their confederacy consisted of four allied nations: the Attignawantan (Bear), Attigneenongnahac (Cord), Arendahronon (Rock), and Tahontaenrat (Deer). ...

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Chapter 11: “In Order to Bring Them to Trade”: Neutral Exchange during the Sixteenth Century

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pp. 257-268

This paper examines the nature of Neutral Iroquoian exchange systems prior to the influx of European goods during the last quarter of the sixteenth century. Prior to the commencement of the commercial fur trade in the late sixteenth century, small quantities of European trade goods were moving into the lands of the Neutral confederacy, travelling by way of previously established trade routes. ...

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Chapter 12: Sixteenth-Century Beads: New Data, New Directions

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pp. 269-286

Several authors in this volume report evidence of beads found in sixteenth-century contexts, and of beads assigned conventionally—or potentially—to this century. Their combined findings shed new light on regional chrono-typologies and early distribution patterns. ...

Contributors

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pp. 287-288

Index

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pp. 289-296