Cover

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Half title, Title page, Copyright

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Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

This book would not have been possible without a Connections Grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), whose generous support allowed us, among other things, to hold an authors’ workshop at Dalhousie University in September 2013, ...

Abbreviations

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pp. ix-xii

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Introduction: Why Rethink Canadian Aid?

Stephen Brown, Molly den Heyer, David R. Black

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pp. 1-14

There has been no shortage of calls for “reinventing” or “reimagining” Canadian foreign aid to respond to the litany of problems that emerged over the forty-five-year lifespan of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), including excessive bureaucracy, slow delivery and frequently shifting priorities (Carin and Smith 2010; Gordon Foundation 2010). ...

Section I: Foundations of Ethics, Power and Bureaucracy

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I. Humane Internationalism and the Malaise of Canadian Aid Policy

David R. Black

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pp. 17-36

Why do national governments provide foreign aid? Why should they provide foreign aid? These deceptively simple questions, analytical and normative, are the focus of a voluminous literature within and beyond Canada. As Maurits van der Veen (2011) has demonstrated, the way they are answered varies quite widely among donor states and depends substantially on how foreign aid is “framed.” ...

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II. Refashioning Humane Internationalism in Twenty-First-Century Canada

Adam Chapnick

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pp. 37-54

The 2013 merger of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) with the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade was framed by Canada’s then Conservative government as an effort to better align international development policy with Canadian national interests (Savage 2013). ...

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III. Revisiting the Ethical Foundations of Aid and Development Policy from a Cosmopolitan Perspective

John D. Cameron

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pp. 55-70

Debates about normative ethics and Canadian aid policy are longstanding but surprisingly thin. In spite of the normative values that underlie public support for aid, and indeed the motivations of many scholars who write about it, the actual ethical underpinnings of aid have rarely been seriously examined in the Canadian context. ...

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IV. Power and Policy: Lessons from Aid Effectiveness

Molly den Heyer

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pp. 71-88

When the federal government’s plan to fold the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) into the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) leaked from the back pages of the omnibus budget in March 2013, it sparked yet another round of cries for renewing the Canadian aid conversation. ...

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V. Results, Risk, Rhetoric and Reality: The Need for Common Sense in Canada’s Development Assistance

Ian Smillie

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pp. 89-104

An outsider studying the websites of the world’s most prominent international development organizations — DFID, USAID, the World Bank, UNDP — could not fail to notice that the words “effectiveness” and “results” appear so frequently that they hint at some sort of problem. ...

Section II: The Canadian Context And Motives

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VI. Mimicry and Motives: Canadian Aid Allocation in Longitudinal Perspective

Liam Swiss

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pp. 107-132

There is no consensus over the first principles of Canadian foreign aid. If anything, ideas about the principles of Canadian aid have become more fragmented since 2006. Does Canada provide aid to help the neediest? Is Canada simply trying to ensure access for its multinational firms abroad? Is Canadian aid little more than a blunt tool of foreign policy? ...

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VII. Continental Shift? Rethinking Canadian Aid to the Americas

Laura MacDonald, Arne Ruckert

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pp. 133-150

One of the defining features of the Harper government’s development assistance program, and of its foreign policy more broadly, was a strong rhetorical shift towards an emphasis on Canadian economic interest. The Americas as a region tended to serve as a proxy (at least in the government’s rhetoric) for this shift in focus. ...

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VIII. Preventing, Substituting or Complementing the Use of Force? Development Assistance in Canadian Strategic Culture

Justin Massie, Stéphane Roussel

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pp. 151-170

Decades ago, analysts complained that security and foreign aid policies were generally conceived as distinct spheres of activity (Spicer 1966, 14–22). Since then, states have adapted their foreign policy to make development aid and security operations coherent tools aimed at similar politico-strategic goals. ...

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IX. The Management of Canadian Development Assistance: Ideology, Electoral Politics or Public Interest?

François Audet, Olga Navarro-Flores

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pp. 171-186

Several decisions made by the Canadian government have initiated an important debate on what some call a shift in foreign aid. Coinciding with the Conservative government’s arrival in power, this shift has been especially noticeable between 2010 and 2014. ...

Section III: Canada’s Role in International Development on Key Themes

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X. Gender Equality and the “Two CIDAs”: Successes and Setbacks, 1976–2015

Rebecca Tiessen

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pp. 189-204

For more than four decades, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) played an important role in promoting women’s rights and gender equality in development projects around the world, albeit with several setbacks that I document in this chapter. ...

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XI. From “Children-in-Development” to Social Age Mainstreaming in Canada’s Development Policy and Programming?

Christina Clark-Kazak

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pp. 205-220

Despite the importance of age and generation in development processes, very few development agencies attempt to mainstream age in the same way as they do gender. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is the only development actor that has an explicit age, gender, and diversity mainstreaming policy. ...

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XII. Canada’s Fragile States Policy: What Have We Accomplished and Where Do We Go from Here?

David Carment, Yiagadeesen Samy

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pp. 221-236

Though bold and innovative, the Canadian International Development Agency’s (CIDA) early investments in fragile states analysis and network development held the organization to a level of high expectation, which has clearly failed to materialize in the form of a more effective policy. ...

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XIII. Canada and Development in Other Fragile States: Moving beyond the “Afghanistan Model”

Stephen Barony, Themrise Khan

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pp. 237-254

Before 2013, Canadian government officials often cited Afghanistan as an example of successful whole-of-government engagement in fragile states. Official Ottawa lauded the Afghanistan taskforce system, with its extensive coordination of Canadian efforts from Ottawa down to the Provincial Reconstruction Team in Kandahar, ...

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XIV. Charity Begins at Home: The Extractive Sector as an Illustration of the Harper Government’s De Facto Aid Policy

Gabriel C. Goyette

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pp. 255-272

The Harper government made its mark on Canadian development assistance through numerous and profound changes to practices, the institutional set-up, and the instruments used to provide aid. While some of these changes may have gone unnoticed by the Canadian public, others attracted more attention, ...

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XV. Undermining Foreign Aid: The Extractive Sector and the Recommercialization of Canadian Development Assistance

Stephen Brown

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pp. 273-294

In 2011, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) announced three new development projects in conjunction with Canadian NGOs and mining companies.1 The total amount of CIDA funding committed was not especially high, nor was it the first time that the CIDA had supported such projects. ...

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Conclusion: Rethinking Canadian Development Cooperation – Towards Renewed Partnerships?

David R. Black, Stephen Brown, Molly den Heyer

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pp. 295-312

Taken together, the chapters in this collection paint a picture of a Canadian aid policy marked by varied and ambiguous purposes, unstable thematic and geographic focus, and insecure institutional modalities. Although many contributors place particular emphasis on the contours of aid policy under the Harper government, ...

Contributors

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pp. 313-320

Index

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pp. 321-339

Further titles

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