Cover

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Half title, Title page, Copyright,

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Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

The first version of this volume was published in 2012 under the title The Gypsy Issue in Hungary, 1945–2010 [Cigánykérdés Magyarországon, 1945-2010], with the support of the National Cultural Fund. The National Cultural Fund was established by the state, and it was meant to be an independent financial fund to support cultural affairs. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-30

“Do not ask me who I am and do not ask me to remain the same”—this is what the French philosopher and cultural historian Michel Foucault thought concerning the relationship we develop with our own image and the image of us formed by others.1 In the 1950s a Gypsy nail-maker bitterly explained what people in Hungary generally thought about Gypsies: ...

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“Comrades, If You Have a Heart…” The History of the Gypsy Issue, 1945–1961

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pp. 31-62

Like in many East-Central European countries, the brief period of parliamentary republicanism following World War II ended with the seizing of power by a communist party (the Hungarian Workers’ Party) with the support of the Soviet Union. The single-party system began to form in 1948 and aimed to reorganize society according to Marxist-Leninist principles within a framework of political internationalism. ...

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“Life Goes On…” The Hungarian Party-State and Assimilation

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pp. 63-118

“It is clear that the Gypsies cannot be regarded as a national minority,” noted János Kádár, the First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party (MSZMP)1 when offering his opinion on the submission on “improving the lives of the Gypsy population.” The first time the highest echelon of Party leadership meaningfully dealt with the situation of the Gypsy population was June of 1961. ...

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Roma Policy after the Regime Change

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pp. 119-186

In 1989–90, the countries of East-Central Europe once again embarked on the path of democratic transformation. In light of this, they rewrote their policies on minorities. After the 1989 regime change the Hungarian state recognized national identity as an individual choice. Thus, in theory, the individual was free to choose assimilation or opt for minority status, free of coercion. ...

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Panopticon: Roma Policy, 2010–2015

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pp. 187-204

There are many ways of conceptualizing the state: some explain it through its operations, existence and institutions. In Foucault’s writing we encounter a concept borrowed from Bentham: the metaphor for the state is the panopticon. This word is derived from ancient Greek for “all” (pan) and “view” (opticon). According to this approach institutions create a unique order in society. ...

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Summary: Decades of Exclusion

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pp. 205-210

This book illustrated the history of the Gypsy issue in the context of Hungarian national history based on state policy documents. The many kinds of public discourses about Roma and their various interpretations shaped the relationship between the “majority” and minority, and helped in understanding the social context of the emergence of the “Gypsy issue” along with the local and national power relations that defined it. ...

Bibliography

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pp. 211-232

List of Photographs

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pp. 233-238

Index

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pp. 239-242

Back cover

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