Cover Page

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Title Page, Copyright Pages

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pp. 2-6

Table of Contents

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pp. 7-8

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Translation in the Politics of Culture

Luise von Flotow

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pp. 9-16

Most writing can be shown to be "political" in some sense, conforming to the context in which it is produced, deliberately transgressing it, reflecting upon it, or aiming at a particular readership in order to convince, seduce or otherwise exert influence. Most reading, too, is conducted in a political context in which a written text may be suppressed, ignored or awarded prizes...

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Introduction: The Middle Ages

Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinsk

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pp. 17-28

How far back should we go to speak of medieval translation? When were writers first aware of the specific problems presented by a society using a learned language-Latin-as well as a number of vernaculars? One could start with Saint Jerome , who already in the fourth century in his translations from Greek to Latin addressed one of the major points of contention for the medieval-or, for that matter, any-translator:...

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Introduction: The Renaissance

Daniel Russell

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pp. 29-36

Translation during the Renaissance was an extremely important activity, but it was an activity much different from translation as we understand it today. As in ancient Rome, the goal of the translation was not to replicate, with as much reproductive accuracy as possible, the original text and the intent with which the author had produced it. On the contrary, the goal was usually to appropriate the text being translated for the needs of the target culture, and sometime...

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Erasmus, Dolet and the Politics of Translation

Kenneth Lloyd-Jones

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pp. 37-56

It would seem that almost anything we might say of politics can equally be said of translation, whether we have in mind the Aristotelian sense of man as a political animal, Bismarck's conviction that "Die Politik ist keine exacte Wissenschaft" [Politics is not an exact science 2], or the praxis of politics as the art of the possible. Politics engages the interplay of power relationships, the negotiations and compromises necessary for their resolution and-ideally at least-the...

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Eusebius' Greek Version of Vergil's Fourth Eclogue

Edwin D. Floyd

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pp. 57-68

As it adjusted the syntax and vocabulary of the Latin original, a fourth-century Greek translation of Eclogue 4 veered pretty consistently toward a messianic interpretation and so helped shape subsequent reading of Vergil's poem along such lines. The most readily accessible dimension thus added to Eclogue 4 involves Homeric resonances, reused from a Christian perspective. Occasionally, though, the translation goes beyond Homer to other archaic...

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Translation and Tradition: Reading the Consolation of Philosophy Through King Alfred's Boethius

David A. Lopez

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pp. 69-84

Comparative textual studies between original texts and later translations, such as those presented by my colleagues in this volume, have significantly improved scholars' understanding of many facets of ancient and medieval societies. In the process of examining how political motivations of the translators differed from those of the original authors, much insight has been gained into the broad relationships between text and society. In these studies...

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Authority Refracted : Personal Principle and Translation in Wace's Roman de Brut

Dolores Buttry

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pp. 85-106

The twelfth-century Norman chronicler, Maistre Wace , is perhaps the best illustration of the pitfalls of the medieval system of patronage.I As is well known, Henry II became so dissatisfied with the Roman de Rou that he replaced Wace as "court historian" with "Beneeit" (probably Benoit de Sainte-Maure). Several reasons have been advanced for this fall from grace : Jean-Guy Gouttebrouze relates...

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The Pro Ligario: Volgarizzamento as a Means of Profit

Cristiana Fordyce

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pp. 107-120

In 1267, the illustrious citizen Brunetto Latini was allowed to return to victorious Guelf Florence after six years of exile in France. The notary and chancellor, who had served the city until the defeat of his party, had continued his commitment to the city abroad by assisting rich Florentine merchants residing in France. Providing support to the mercantile cla ss, the primary function of most lawyers, meant for...

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Jean Froissart's Chroniques: Translatio and the Impossible Apprenticeship of Neutrality

Zrinka Stahuljak

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pp. 121-142

In his Chroniques, Jean Froissart (1337-1409) records the history of his time, the Hundred Years War between France and England in which the ruling Valois and Plantagenet dynasties disputed their respective hereditary rights to the French royal throne. I The French king Charles IV, the son of Philippe IV le Bel, died without a successor in 1328. While Edward III, the English king...

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Translation, Censorship, Authorship and the Lost Work of Reginald Pecock

Andrew Taylor

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pp. 143-160

On the fourth of December, 1457, a crowd of twenty thousand gathered at Saint Paul's Cross in London to hear Reginald Pecock, bishop of Chichester, recant his errors. ...1 confess and acknowledge that I have beforetime, presuming of mine own natural wit, and preferring the judgment of natural reason before the New and Old Testaments, and the authority and determination of our mother Holy Church, have holden, feeled, and taught otherwise than the Holy Roman and Universal...

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Leo Africanus, Translated and Betrayed

Oumelbanine Zhiri

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pp. 161-174

An important body of knowledge, devoted to the need to re-situate historically the perception of different races and peoples, is already constituted and is constantly growing . In particular, many feel the necessity to concentrate on the vision that Europe presented and is still presenting of Africa, with as much precision as has been given to the study of the circumstances of the discovery...

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From the Certainties of Scholasticism to Renaissance Relativism: Montaigne, Translator of Sebond

Philip Hendrick

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pp. 175-190

The Theologie Naturelle was first published by Montaigne in 1569, at the height of the religious wars in France. I Some eleven years later he wrote in the Apologie de Raimond Sebond that he had two main reasons for undertaking the task of translating Sebond. First he claimed that his father, a few days before his death, found a copy of the Theologia Naturalis under a pile of abandoned papers and...

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Montaigne's Traduction of Sebond: A Comparison of the Prologus of the Liber creaturarum with the Preface of the Theologie Naturelle

Edward Tilson

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pp. 191-202

There is a great deal at stake in the longstanding critical debate surrounding the Theologie Naturelle, Montaigne's 1569 translation of Raimond Sebond's Liber creaturarum (The Book of the Creatures) . On the interpretation of Montaigne's intent in his translation hinge arguments about the meaning of his most important essay, the Apologie de Raimond Sebond. Moreover, as this central...

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"Entreat her hear me but a word" : Translation and Foreignness in Titus Andronicus

Adam McKeown

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pp. 203-218

Toward the close of act 2 of Titus Andronicus, Tamora and Lavinia stand face to face in a conversation neither understands very well. The two women-one a Goth, the other a Roman; one treacherous, the other faithful; one a captive become queen, the other a princess become captive; each in her tum a victim and accomplice in an internecine and self-replicating plot of murder and revenge...

Contributors

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pp. 219-222