Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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p. ix

I thank the University of California at Berkeley and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for providing the funds and leave time necessary to undertake the writing and research of this book. I am especially grateful to Mary Gluck, David Joravsky, and Sarah Maza, who graciously...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-10

In 1966 the historian Michel Foucault declared that the concept of man I/would be erased, like a face drawn in sand at the edge of the sea."l Foucault's dramatic declaration represented the culmination of nearly a century of philosophical and aesthetic commentary that questioned whether "man" was in fact a unitary...

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Part One: Psychoanalysis and the Self

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pp. 11-16

The reception of psychoanalysis in France is usually said to have been rather inhospitable. Freud's version of the unconscious was allowed in only through the back door-by way of the literary avant-garde.1 Although at least one medical periodical, l'En c├ęphale, was receptive to psychoanalysis, in general the discipline...

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1. The Legal Status of the Irrational

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pp. 17-57

After about 1860, the criminal body came to be taken as evidence of deviance, and the function of law was to survey and repress criminals who presented a social danger. Scientists measured and minutely detailed the deviant's physique, trying to localize deviance in physical anomalies. The criminal body and criminal behavior...

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2. Gender Complexes

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pp. 58-97

If the theoretical problem of unmotivated crime challenged psychiatric expertise and rendered many, though not by any means all, medical men sympathetic to the insights afforded by psychoanalysis, most doctors represented the immediate criminal threat to social order in terms of gender-in terms, above all, of...

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3. Sight Unseen (Reading the Unconscious)

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pp. 98-122

Pleasure and reality, instinct and culture, madness and reason, self and other-the dichotomies that had structured debates about criminals and about deviance in general before the Great War-were being redefined in new terms. The debate about schizophrenia in interwar France offers yet another window on the dissolution...

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Part Two: Sade's Selflessness

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pp. 123-126

The marquis de Sade (1740- 1814) was not known for his discretion or his philanthopy, and it may seem odd that in a section devoted to selflessness he should be the central focus. But in the interwar years Sade's sadistic and not so sadistic crimes, like the crimes of the "deviants" 1 have thus far discussed, also became...

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4. The Virtue of Crime

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pp. 127-169

In 1886 Richard von Krafft-Ebing, the father of sexology, explained perversion as a congenital defecto His views were echoed by most fin-de-siecle medical works about Sade, even by those-and they constituted the bulk of those published-concemed to liberate Sade from the metaphorical prisons of the moralizers...

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5. The Pleasure of Pain

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pp. 170-200

Where did Sade's words come from ? The surrealists had given an ambiguous answer: Sade's words were the expression of his free, radical spirit, and they were the result of his punishment. Of course, it is possible to have it both ways. The marginal man simply becomes increasingly indignant, increasingly lucid...

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Part Three: Headlessness

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pp. 201-204

In a recent feminist psychoanalytic study of sexual dominance, Jessica Benjamin argues that masochism is a form of self-affirmation, a means by which the masochist's real pleasure is known. This paradox operates through an elaborate masquerade. Because masochists experience...

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6. Writing and Crime

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pp. 205-220

In Discipline and Punish, Michel Foucault referred to the romantic doubling of monstrosity and beauty as the "aesthetic rewriting of crime," the transposition "to another social class [of] the spectacle that had surrounded the criminal."l Beginning in the late eighteenth century, he argued, crime was no longer the symbol of one social...

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7. Returning to the Scene of the Crime

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pp. 221-245

In 1929-1930, a group of intellectuals, some of them disaffected surrealists, published a tract titled Un Cadavre, in reference to a 1924 surrealist pamphlet of the same name which had mocked the pompous funeral rites of Anatole France. Supposedly it was Bataille's idea to include a portrait of Breton as Jesus, with a crown of blood-stained...

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Conclusion

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pp. 246-252

This book has attempted to account for the process by which a repressed otherness became the structuring principIe of male subjectivity, of a new split subject. In Bataille and Lacan (particularly the Lacan of the interwar years covered by this book), the self has been decentered, but it has not been relocated in an "other" awaiting liberation...

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 253-264

Index

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pp. 265-270