Cover

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Half title, Serie editor, Title page, Copyright, Sponsors

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

This book was developed from a dinosaur track symposium that was organized and held in April 2011 in Obernkirchen, Germany, on behalf of the Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum Hannover (Lower Saxony State Museum Hannover). The enthusiasm generated during the short span of the symposium resulted in the idea for a new up-to-date dinosaur track book. ...

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Introduction

Peter L. Falkingham, Daniel Marty, Annette Richter

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pp. 3-12

The Dinosauria are one of the most morphologically diverse groups of terrestrial vertebrates (Alexander, 1989), spanning several orders of magnitude in size from the smallest hummingbird to the largest sauropods. Ancestrally bipedal, groups within the Dinosauria evolved into a range of habitually and facultatively bipedal and quadrupedal animals. ...

Part 1. Approaches and Techniques for Studying Dinosaur Tracks

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1. Experimental and Comparative Ichnology

Jesper Milan, Peter L. Falkingham

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pp. 14-27

One of the main problems faced in paleoichnology is the delicate relationship between the organism and the sediments it leaves its tracks and traces in. Since the first scientific report of comparisons between fossil and modern tracks, researchers have turned to making experiments and comparing tracks and trackways of modern animals in order to interpret fossil tracks and traces. ...

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2. Close-Range Photogrammetry for 3-D Ichnology: The Basics of Photogrammetric Ichnology

Neffra Matthews, Tommy Noble, Brent Breithaupt

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pp. 28-55

Vertebrate trace fossils reflect the complex interrelationship between an animal’s activities and the substrate (Manning, 2004; Falkingham, 2014), which is well represented in the ichnofaunal record of Mesozoic dinosaurs (Thulborn, 1990; Lockley, 1991; Lockley and Meyer, 2000; Wright and Breithaupt, 2002). ...

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3. The Early Cretaceous Dinosaur Trackways in Münchehagen (Lower Saxony, Germany): 3-D Photogrammetry as Basis for Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Shape Variation and Evaluation of Material Loss during Excavation

Oliver Wings, Jens N. Lallensack, Heinrich Mallison

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pp. 56-71

Lower Cretaceous sandstones in Lower Saxony, northern Germany, are well known for their abundant fossil dinosaur tracks. One of the most productive sites is Münchehagen, which is well known for the only German Cretaceous sauropod trackways and hundreds of tracks of ornithopods and theropods, often forming long individual trackways with dozens of consecutive footprints. ...

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4. Applying Objective Methods to Subjective Track Outlines

Peter L. Falkingham

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pp. 72-81

Formally communicating the morphology of a track generally occurs via a two-dimensional (2-D) medium (i.e., paper). For this reason, track outlines are often used to convey the geometry and morphology of a track. However, these track outlines are routinely subjective, based on the interpreter’s opinion of where the track ends and the surrounding undeformed substrate begins. ...

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5. Beyond Surfaces: A Particle-Based Perspective on Track Formation

Stephen M. Gatesy, Richard G. Ellis

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pp. 82-91

Fossil footprints record unrivaled evidence of behavior in long extinct species. For students of dinosaur locomotion, tracks offer clues about gait, speed, limb posture, foot motion (kinematics), foot loading (kinetics), and social behavior (e.g., Ostrom, 1972; Alexander, 1976; Thulborn and Wade, 1984, 1989; Padian and Olsen, 1989; Gatesy et al., 1999; ...

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6. A Numerical Scale for Quantifying the Quality of Preservation of Vertebrate Tracks

Matteo Belvedere, James O. Farlow

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pp. 92-99

From its beginning, vertebrate ichnology has described fossilized footprints in a qualitative, descriptive way. At the same time, considerable effort has gone into illustrating footprint morphology. In recent years, new technologies (e.g., laser-scanning and close-range photogrammetry) and methods (e.g., geometric morphometrics) ...

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7. Evaluating the Dinosaur Track Record: An Integrative Approach to Understanding the Regional and Global Distribution, Scientific Importance, Preservation, and Management of Tracksites

Luis Alcalá, Martin G. Lockley, Alberto Cobos, Luis Mampel, Rafael Royo-Torres

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pp. 100-118

Many papers on fossil tracks, from many regions of the world have been published in the last two decades, and this rapid increase in documentation has itself generated the idea of a dinosaur “footprint renaissance” marked by a landslide of new discoveries and documentation. ...

Part 2. Paleobiology and Evolution from Tracks

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8. Iberian Sauropod Tracks through Time: Variations in Sauropod Manus and Pes Morphologies

Diego Castanera, Vanda F. Santos, Laura Piñuela, Carlos Pascual, Bernat Vila, José I. Canudo, José Joaquin Moratalla

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pp. 120-137

The Iberian sauropod track record has yielded more than 100 sauropod tracksites ranging in age from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) to the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian). During this wide range of time, four different types of manus prints can be differentiated, changing in morphology from (1) speech-bubble–shaped with a prominent claw mark in digit I (Middle Jurassic), ...

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9. The Flexion of Sauropod Pedal Unguals and Testing the Substrate Grip Hypothesis Using the Trackway Fossil Record

Lee E. Hall, Ashley E. Fragomeni, Denver W. Fowler

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pp. 138-151

Sauropod pedes exhibit a unique, highly derived pedal ungual morphology and articulation. During plantar flexion of the pes, the spade-like, laterally compressed unguals are rotated ventrally and deflected laterally across the front of the pes so the claws overlap in an en-echelon fashion; ...

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10. Dinosaur Swim Track Assemblages: Characteristics, Contexts, and Ichnofacies Implications

Andrew R. C. Milner, Martin G. Lockley

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pp. 152-181

Traces made by swimming tetrapods are simply known as “swim tracks.” These trace fossils are of interest to paleontologists because they provide insight into the behavior of past vertebrates in aquatic environments. However, swim tracks have always been a controversial subject for several reasons. ...

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11. Two-Toed Tracks through Time: On the Trail of “Raptors” and Their Allies

Martin G. Lockley, Jerald D. Harris, Rihui Li, Lida Xing, Torsten van der Lubbe

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pp. 182-201

The two-toed, or didactyl, tracks of deinonychosaurian dinosaurs, popularly known as “raptors,” are among the most distinctive theropod tracks known. Including the first confirmed report from China in 1994, a total of 16 tracksites have been recognized, all from Cretaceous strata. These include nine Chinese, two Korean, three North American, and two European occurrences. ...

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12. Diversity, Ontogeny, or Both? A Morphometric Approach to Iguanodontian Ornithopod (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) Track Assemblages from the Berriasian (Lower Cretaceous) of Northwestern Germany

Jahn J. Hornung, Annina Böhme, Nils Schlüter, Mike Reich

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pp. 202-225

Identifying the causes of morphological variation (including taxonomic diversity, ontogeny, sexual dimorphism, and individual variation) observed in a set of vertebrate tracks – especially from different closely related trackmaker species – is difficult and often not straightforward due to imperfect knowledge of biological variation in the autopodia of the trackmakers, and a number of ethological, preservational, and taphonomical influences. ...

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13. Uncertainty and Ambiguity in the Interpretation of Sauropod Trackways

Kent A. Stevens, Scott Ernst, Daniel Marty

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pp. 226-243

Trackway interpretation, the drawing of inferences about a trackmaker and its movements from a pattern of trace impressions, is examined from the perspective of the information in the pattern of individual tracks along a trackway, with emphasis here on sauropod trackways. ...

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14. Dinosaur Tracks as “Four-Dimensional Phenomena” Reveal How Different Species Moved

Alberto Cobos, Francisco Gascó, Rafael Royo-Torres, Martin G. Lockley, Luis Alcalá

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pp. 244-256

Although thousands of dinosaur tracks have been found worldwide, three-dimensional (3-D) natural track casts are still relatively poorly documented. Those few that have been published, however, sometimes show impressions of reticulated skin, toe pads, and scratch marks made by scales and may even record how the sole of the foot bore the trackmaker’s weight. ...

Part 3. Ichnotaxonomy and Trackmaker Identification

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15. Analyzing and Resolving Cretaceous Avian Ichnotaxonomy Using Multivariate Statistical Analyses: Approaches and Results

Lisa G. Buckley, Richard T. McCrea, Martin G. Lockley

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pp. 258-309

Several new ichnotaxa of avian tracks have been described in recent years, adding to the known ichnodiversity of Cretaceous avians. The naming of new avian ichnospecies and ichnogenera has resulted in the creation of several avian ichnofamilies, but due to the challenges of documenting bird tracks, there are several ichnogenera that to date remain unassigned to any ichnofamily. ...

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16. Elusive Ornithischian Tracks in the Famous Berriasian (Lower Cretaceous) “Chicken Yard” Tracksite of Northern Germany: Quantitative Differentiation between Small Tridactyl Trackmakers

Tom Hübner

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pp. 310-332

The “Chicken Yard” tracksite in Northern Germany, stratigraphically located in the Berriasian (lowermost Cretaceous) Bückeberg Formation, is famous for the extraordinary abundance of typical tridactyl theropod dinosaur tracks and the first didactyl footprints of deinonychosaurian theropods from Europe. ...

Part 4. Depositional Environments and Their Influence on the Track Record

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17. Too Many Tracks: Preliminary Description and Interpretation of the Diverse and Heavily Dinoturbated Early Cretaceous “Chicken Yard” Ichnoassemblage (Obernkirchen Tracksite, Northern Germany)

Annette Richter, Annina Böhme

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pp. 334-357

The moderately to heavily dinoturbated Berriasian Chicken Yard level from the Obernkirchen tracksite (Lower Saxony, northern Germany) is preliminarily described and analyzed. Its ichnoassemblage is characterized by an extraordinary high track density composed of several different morphotypes and size classes of theropod and ornithopod true tracks with an overall similar preservation quality. ...

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18. Dinosaur Tracks in Eolian Strata: New Insights into Track Formation, Walking Kinetics, and Trackmaker Behavior

David B. Loope, Jesper Milàn

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pp. 358-365

Dinosaur tracks are abundant in wind-blown Mesozoic deposits, but the nature of loose eolian sand makes it difficult to determine how they are preserved. This also raises the questions: Why would dinosaurs be walking around in dune fields in the first place? And, if they did go there, why would their tracks not be erased by the next wind storm? ...

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19. Analysis of Desiccation Crack Patterns for Quantitative Interpretation of Fossil Tracks

Tom Schanz, Maria Datcheva, Hanna Haase, Daniel Marty

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pp. 366-379

This chapter presents a conceptual approach to interpret fossil track environments employing the progress made in soil mechanics regarding understanding and modeling of soil desiccation cracks. It must be emphasized that the thorough analysis of soil desiccation phenomena is crucial for the understanding of track formation and preservation processes and the interpretation of the paleoenvironmental setting associated with fossil track-bearing strata. ...

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20. A Review of the Dinosaur Track Record from Jurassic and Cretaceous Shallow Marine Carbonate Depositional Environments

Simone D’Orazi Porchetti, Massimo Bernardi, Andrea Cinquegranelli, Vanda Faria dos Santos, Daniel Marty, Fabio Massimo Petti, Paulo Sá Caetano, Alexander Wagensommer

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pp. 380-392

An extensive literature on dinosaur ichnology is available today, with hundreds of papers describing dinosaur tracks in different depositional settings. In recent years, it has become common practice in paleontology to gather data in databases to ease organization, managing, and analysis of large amounts of information. ...

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Paleoenvironment Reconstructions of Vertebrate Tracksites in the Obernkirchen Sandstone, Lower Cretaceous of Northwest Germany

Jahn J. Hornung, Annette Richter, Frederik Spindler

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pp. 393-398

These four color plates show reconstructions of the Obernkirchen/ Bückeberge and Münchehagen areas in Lower Saxony during the deposition of the late Berriasian Obernkirchen Sandstone (Bückeberg Formation), with a focus on some of the localities visited during the Dinosaur Tracks 2011 symposium in Opernkirchen. ...

Dinosaur Track Terminology: A Glossary of Terms

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pp. 399-402

Index

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pp. 403-412

List of Contributors

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p. 413

About the Editors

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