Half Title, Series info, Title page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xiv

This book is the result of a decade of work involving many people. First, I would like to thank the many archivists and librarians who have assisted me over the years. The Manuscript Division at the Library of Congress deserves special thanks for helping me navigate the massive Papers of the NAACP collection, ...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-6

Though not particularly well known, Virginia’s role in the civil rights movement was substantial. This is particularly true with regards to school desegregation. One of the five cases that made up the historic Brown v. Board of Education decision began in the state in 1951, when representatives of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) filed Davis v. Prince Edward County. ...

read more

One: “A Source of Great Consternation” The NAACP and Brown v. Board of Education in Virginia, 1902–1954

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 7-21

Racial segregation in Virginia’s public school systems dated from their establishment just after the Civil War. Thirty years later, the state’s 1902 constitution reiterated the requirement for segregated education; section 140 read: “White and colored children shall not be taught in the same school.” ...

read more

Two: “A New Day Is Being Born” Brown and the Southern Backlash, 1954–1955

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 22-43

On Monday, May 17, 1954, the United States Supreme Court handed down its decision in Brown v. Board of Education. A unanimous ruling, Brown declared segregated schools inherently unequal and, therefore, unconstitutional, as the NAACP had argued. Chief Justice Earl Warren, author of the decision, wrote, ...

read more

Three: “Those Who Were on the Other Side” The NAACP and the Rise of Massive Resistance, 1956

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 44-58

The national office of the NAACP shifted its strategy for securing implementation of Brown v. Board of Education in early 1956. During the previous year and a half, the association had instructed its southern branches to cooperate with local school boards to bring about the implementation of the Supreme Court’s desegregation rulings. ...

read more

Four: “Keep On Keeping On” The Height of Massive Resistance, 1957–1959

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 59-78

n Virginia, the years between 1957 and 1959 brought grave hardships to the supporters of school desegregation. The size and power of segregationist organizations peaked in the late 1950s, as did state government efforts to prevent integration in the public schools. The Virginia NAACP, the preeminent supporter of integration in the Commonwealth, struggled to survive — ...

read more

Five: Battling Tokenism Direct Action Protest and the Campaign for School Desegregation, 1960–1963

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 79-104

The early 1960s ushered in a new era of the civil rights movement. Frustrated by the slow pace of change in the late 1950s, a new generation of civil rights activists, aided by their elders, took to the streets between 1960 and 1963, launching nonviolent direct action protests against segregation throughout the nation, but especially in the South. ...

read more

Six: A New “Holy Prerogative” Freedom of Choice and School Desegregation in Virginia, 1964–1967

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 105-123

The implementation of Brown v. Board of Education in the South picked up noticeably during the mid-1960s. Continued litigation pursued by the NAACP and growing pressure from the federal government accelerated school desegregation, as did direct action protests and demonstrations. ...

read more

Seven: The Green Light The NAACP and School Integration in Virginia, 1968–1974

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 124-146

By the late 1960s, the Virginia State Conference of the NAACP had helped to bring about a dramatic rise in the amount of school desegregation in the Commonwealth. Supported by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and subsequent compliance guidelines issued by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), ...

read more

Afterword

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 147-152

Questions related to school integration in Virginia, of course, were not resolved in the mid-1970s. Differences of opinion as to the desirability of integration, and questions about how to best accomplish integration (assuming it is desirable) continued in the 1980s and 1990s, and persist to the present day. ...

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 153-204

Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 205-218

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 219-232

Series titles

pdf iconDownload PDF