Title Page

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. i-v

read more

The Authors

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. vi

George W. E. Nickelsburg was born in 1934 in San Jose, California, and lives in Issaquah, Washington. He received his education at Valparaiso University, Concordia Seminary, Washington University, and Harvard University, where he did his doctoral work with Krister Stendahl, Helmut Koester, Frank Moore Cross, and John Strugnell. In 1963–64, he was Thayer Fellow at the American...

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-xiv

read more

Foreword

Peter Machinist, Helmut Koester

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xvi-xvi

The word Hermeneia has a rich background in the history of biblical interpretation as a term used in the ancient Greek-speaking world for the detailed, systematic exposition of a scriptural work. It is hoped that the series, like its name, will carry forward this old and venerable tradition. A second, entirely practical reason for selecting the name lies in the ...

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xvii-xviii

This volume completes the commentary on 1 Enoch begun with George W. E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 1–36, 81–108 (Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2001). The parts of this apocalyptic corpus covered here include “The Book of Parables” (chaps. 37–71) and “The Book of the Luminaries” (chaps. 72–82). These sections have been translated and commented on respectively by George Nickelsburg and James VanderKam; the latter section includes commentary...

Reference Codes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xxix

read more

Endpapers

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. xxx

The endpapers display manuscripts of the Ethiopic and Aramaic versions of 1 Enoch. The front endpaper reproduces Lake Tana 9 (Kebran 9) folios 82v and 83r, Hammerschmidt Catalogue Vol. 1 (1973), containing the Ethiopic text of 1 Enoch 36:4—39:10. Photo ...

1 Enoch 37–71; The Book of Parables

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. 2

With this commentary I conclude fifty years during which the Parables of Enoch have simmered and boiled for me. In 1960, Professor Edgar Krentz introduced me to the text in a course at Concordia Seminary in St. Louis. I worked through the Parables in 1963 while preparing for my doctoral exams. Two years later and for the next five years this text was an object of research for my dissertation. And then for...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 3-84

The Book of the Parables (or Similitudes) of Enoch is a text from around the turn of the era that claims to be the ancient patriarch’s revelation of secrets about the cosmos and the end-time, which had, in turn, been revealed to him during an angelically guided tour of heaven and the outermost parts of the earth. It is the longest section of the collection known as 1 Enoch, being almost twice as long...

Commentary

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. 85

read more

Superscription to the Book of Parables (37:1)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 85-86

These words were written to provide a superscription for what is now the second part of the Enochic corpus (see 37:1, textual n. a-a). Strikingly, the work is entitled Enoch’s “Vision of Wisdom” (raμ

read more

Introduction to the Book of Parables (37:2–5)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 87-94

Composed of six distichs, this artfully crafted introduction expands on the theme of the superscription and serves as the introduction to the whole Book of the Parables: this is a book of unique divine wisdom, which Enoch received from God, “the Lord of Spirits,” and which he now mediates to human beings (“those who dwell on the earth”)—specifically...

read more

The First Parable (38–44)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 95-147

The First Parable When the congregation of the righteous appears, thea sinners will be judged for their sins, and from the face of the earth they will be driven; And when the Righteous Onea appears in the presence of the righteous, whoseb chosen works depend on the Lord of Spirits, and light appears to the righteous and chosen who dwell on the earth; Where (will be) the dwelling places of the sinners, and where (wil...

read more

The Second Parable (45–57)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 148-216

This is the second parable concerning those who deny the name of the dwelling of the holy ones and of the Lord of Spirits.a To heaven they will not ascend, and on earth they will not come. Thus will be the lot of the sinners who have denied the name of the Lord of Spirits, who will be kept thus for the day of affliction and tribulation. On that day, my Chosen Onea will sit on the throne of glory and he will b their works, and their dwelling place(s) will be immeasurable.c And their soulsd will...

read more

The Third Parable (58–69)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 217-314

And I began to speak the third parable concerning the righteous and concerning the chosen. Blessed are you, righteous and chosen, for gloriousa (will be) your lot. The righteous will be in the light of the sun, and the chosen, in the light of everlasting life. The days of their life will have no end, and the days of the holy will be innumerable. They will seek the light...

read more

Enoch Is Taken Away (70:1–2)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 315-319

And after this, while he was living, his name was lifted up into the presence of that Son of Mana andb into the presence of the Lord of Spirits, from among those who dwell on the earth. Hea was lifted up on the chariotsb of the windc and his named departed among ...

read more

Enoch’s Account of His Ascent (70:3–4; 71:1–17)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 320-332

Enoch Is Taken to the Garden of the Chosen and Righteous And from that day, I was not reckoneda among them; and he set me between two winds, between the North and the West, where the angels took cords to measure for me the place of the chosen and the righteous. 4/ And there I saw the first fathers and the righteous, who were dwelling in that place from of old. Enoch Ascends to Heaven and Sees the Heavenly Secrets 71:1 And after that, my spirit was taken away, and it ascended to heaven...

1 Enoch 72–82; The Book of the Luminaries

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. 334

In 1989 George Nickelsburg invited me to write the commentary on 1 Enoch 72–82 to be published as part of the second volume of his monumental Hermeneia commentary on 1 Enoch. Since I had worked with the text before and, as I found it intriguing, had written several publications on it, including Enoch and the Growth of an Apocalyptic Tradition, I accepted his invitation. Work on the commentary had to take a back seat to publication of the cave 4 texts from Qumran during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium, but...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 335-408

Because of the special problems posed by the textual witnesses for an Enochic astronomical work, the manuscript evidence will be addressed first. The textual section is followed by a literary analysis and a treatment of the historical setting of the work....

Commentary

read more

Introduction (72:1–2)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 409-415

The book about the motion of the heavenly luminaries alla as they are in their kinds, theirb jurisdiction, their time, their name,c their origins, and their months which Uriel, the holy angel who was with me (and) who is their leader, showed me. The entire book about them, as it is, he showed me and how every year of the world will be forever, untild a new creatione lasting forever is made...

read more

The Law of the Sun (72:2–37)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 416-428

This isa the first law of the luminaries: the luminary (called) the sun has its emergence through b the heavenly gates in the east and c its setting through the western gates of the sky. 3/ I saw six gates through which a the sun emerges and six gates through which the sun sets. The moon rises and sets in those gates and the leaders of b the stars with the ones they lead, six in the east c and six in the west, d all of them—one directly after the other. There were many wind...

read more

The Law of the Phases of the Moon (73)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 429-439

After thisb law I saw a second law for the smaller luminary whose name is the moon. 2/ Its roundness is like the roundness of the sky,a and the wind blowsb its chariot on which it rides, with light being given to it inc measure. 3/ Each month its emergence and settinga change,b and its days are like the days of the sun. Whenc its lightd is evenly distributede (over its surface), it isf one-seventhg the light of the sun. 4/ In this way it rises with its beginning toward east; it emerges on the...

read more

Another Law of the Moon (74)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 440-456

Another course and lawa I saw for it;b by that lawc it carries out its monthly course.d 2/ All thisa Uriel the holy angel whob is the leader of them all showed me. Their positions I wrote downc as he showed me and I wrote down their months as they were and the appearance of their light until fifteen daysd were completed.e 3/ In one-seventh partsa it completesb all its light in the east and in the west. 4/ Ina certain months it changesb (the places of) its settings, and in certain months it goesc its own way. 5/ During two months it sets with the sun in thosea two middle gatesb—in the third and inc the fourth gate. 6/ It emerge...

read more

The Leaders and the Seasons (75:1–3)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 457-462

The leadersa of the heads of the thousands who are over all the creation and over all the stars (have to do) withb those four (days) that are added; they are not separatedc from their positiond according to the calculatione of the year, and theyf serve on the four days that are not reckonedg in the calculation of the year. 2/ People err regarding ...

read more

Twelve Gates, Windows, and Chariots (75:4–9)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 463-467

In the same waya Uriel showed me twelve gatesb open in the disc of the sun’s chariotc in the sky from which the rays of the sun come outd ande from which its heat comes out upon the earth when they are opened at the times stipulated for them.f 6a/ The same is the case when the twelve gatesb are openedc in the sky ond the boundaries of the earth, from which the sun, the moon, the stars, and all the workse of...

read more

The Twelve Winds and Their Gates (76)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 468-481

At the boundaries of the eartha I sawb twelve gates open for all the winds, from which the windsc emerged and blowe on the earth. 2/ Three of thema are open in front of the sky, three on the west, three on the right of the sky, and three on the left. 3/a The first threeb are toward the east, threec toward the north; the three after these on the leftd are toward the south and three one the west. 4/ Througha four of them emergeb winds of blessing and peace,c but,d from those (other) eight,e winds...

read more

The Four Quarters of the Earth, Its Seven Mountains and Seven Rivers (77)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 482-499

The first quarterb is calledc “eastern”d becausee it is the first; and the secondf is called “south”g because there the Most High will descend and especially there the one who is blessed forever will descend.h 2/ The name of the quarter on the west is “diminished”a because there all the heavenly luminariesb diminishc and go down.d 3/ The fourth quarter whose namea is “north” is divided into three parts.b One of them is the place where people live;c the secondd is for the seas,e the deeps,f forests...

read more

The Sun and the Moon and the Waxing and Waning of the Moon (78)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 500-514

Thea names of the sun are as follows: the first Aryaresb and the secondc Tomas.d 2/ The moon hasa four names: its first name is Asanya,b the secondc Abla,d the third Banase, and the fourth Era.e 3/ These are the two great luminaries. Their roundness is like the roundness of the sky, and the sizea of the two of them is the same. 4/ Ina the disc of the sun there are seven parts of light addedb to it beyond what thec moon has; a specific amountd is placed (in the moon) until the seventhe part of the sun passes over. 5/ The...

read more

A Summary (79)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 515-520

Now my son I have shown you everything,a and the law of allb the stars of thec sky is completed. 2/ Hea showed me all their law forb each day, eachc timed in ae jurisdiction, everyf year, its emergence, the command,gevery month,h and every week;i 3/a the decrement of the moonb which is accomplishedc in the sixthd gate because in this sixth gatee itsf light is completedg and from ith comes the beginningi of...

read more

Uriel’s Summary and Prediction of Human Sin and Its Consequences (80)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 521-529

At that time Uriela the angelb responded to me: “I have now shown youc everything, Enoch,d and I have revealed everything to you so that you may seee this sun and this moon and those who lead the stars of the sky and all thosef who turn them—theirg work, their times,h andi their emergences. Ina the days of the sinners the rainy seasonsb will grow shorter, their seedc will become late ond their land and in their fields. Everything on the...

read more

Enoch Views the Heavenly Tablets and Returns to Earth (81)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 530-545

He said to me: “Enoch, looka at these heavenly tablets,b readc what is written on them, and understand each and every item.”d 2/ I looked at everythinga on the heavenly tablets,b read everything that was written, and understood everything.c Id read the book,e allf the actions of people and of all humans who will be on the earthg for the generations of the world. 3/ From that timea forward I blessed the greatb Lord, the kingc of glory forever,d as he...

read more

Enoch’s Instruction to Methuselah (82:1–3)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 546-549

Now my son Methuselah, I am telling you all these thingsa and am writingb (them) down. I have revealed all of them to youc andd have given you the books about all these things. My son,e keep the bookf written by your father so thatg you may give (it) to the generationsh of the world. 2a/ Wisdom I have given to youb and to your childrenc and...

read more

Right and Wrong Calendrical Practice: An Assertion of the Truth of Enoch’s Account (82:4–8)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 550-554

Blessed are alla the righteous, all the blessedb who will walk in the way of righteousnessc and have no sin like the sinnersd in numbering alle the days the sun travels inf the sky through the gates,g entering and emerging for thirtyh days with the heads of thousands of thei order of the stars, withj the four additional ones thatk dividel betweenm the four parts of the year that lead them andn enter with the fouro days. 5/ People err regarding thema and do notb calculate them in the numbering of the entirec yeard because they err regarding them and people ...

read more

The Law of the Stars, Their Leaders, and the Four Seasons (82:9–20)

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 555-568

Thisb is the law of the stars which setc in their places,d ate their times, at their set times, and in their months.f 10/ Thesea are the names of those whob lead them, who keep watch so that they enterc at their timesd, who lead them in their places,e in their orders, inf their times, in their months, in their jurisdictions, and in their positions.g 11/ Theira fourb leaders whoc divide the four parts of the yeard enter first,e and after them (come) the twelve leadersf of the ordersg who divideh thei months and the 360 headsj of thousandsk whol separate the days,m and the four additional ones withn them are the leaderso who separatep the...

read more

Conclusion

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. 569

The booklet that is the subject of this commentary survived a long journey. Its author wrote in the Aramaic language a fundamentally astronomical work that drew on native and international sources of information. In it the angel Uriel (?) reveals the patterns of the heavenly bodies...

Appendix

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 570-574

Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 575-594

Indexes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 595-616

Designer’s Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 617-618