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Title Page

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pp. i-v

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The Authors

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p. vi

Martin Dibelius, 1883-1947, was for thirty-two years Professor of New Testament Exegesis and Criticism at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. A contributor to both the Handbuch zum Neuen Testament and the Meyer Kommentar, he is remembered for his contributions to the Formgesclzichtliche studies. His majo...

Contents

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pp. vii-ix

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Foreword to Hermeneia

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pp. x-xiv

...The word Hermeneia has a rich background in the history of biblical interpretation as a term used in the ancient Greek-speaking world for the detailed, systematic exposition of a scriptural work. It is hoped that the series, like its name, will carry forward this old and venerable tradition. A second, entirely practical reason for selecting the name lay in the desire to avoid a long descriptive title and its inevitable...

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Foreword to the 3d and 4th German Editions

Hans Conzelmann

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p. xii

Martin Dibelius, who died in 1947, left behind almost no preparations for the revision of his commentary on the Pastoral Epistles. The undersigned is solely responsible, therefore, for changes from the preceding, second edition, which had been published in 1931 (a few exceptions involve additions to the bibliographical materials). It is my hope that the unity of the interpretation has been preserved. In view ofDibelius' masterly accomplishment, I have been as careful as possible with his text. Nevertheless, the...

Reference Codes

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pp. xiii-xix

Editor’s Note

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p. xx

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Introduction

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pp. 1-11

Any judgment as to what the Pastorals are and intend to be depends in great measure upon the question of authorship. The person who considers them to be genuine Pauline epistles must understand them as portions of Paul's correspondence. In that case, 2 Tim best fits our accustomed picture of the Pauline letter because 1) in 2 Tim, especially in the last chapter, the personal element is strongly emphasized, and 2) because...

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First Epistle to Timothy

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p. 12

Initial greeting (1: 1, 2). Timothy must combat the heretics in Ephesus (1: 3-7) in the spirit of the Gospel, as it was entrusted to Paul (1 :8-12). For Paul, who was the foremost persecutor, is now an example of God's mercy (1 :13-17). In view of the heretics Paul transmits exhortations to Timothy (1: 18-20). ...

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Initial Greeting (1:1–4)

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pp. 13-14

Paul. Apostle of Christ Jesus by the commission of God our Savior and of Christ Jesus our hope, 2/ to Timothy. his true child in faith: grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord. ...

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Combat the Heretics (1:3–7)

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pp. 15-21

I commanded you to remain in Ephesus, when I traveled to Macedonia, so that you might forbid certain people to proclaim other teachings 4/ and to indulge in endless myths about genealogies which result more in the racking of one's brain than in godly education leading to salvation in faith. 5/ But the purpose of the instruction ...

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The Gospel Entrusted to Paul (1:8–12)

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pp. 22-26

But we know: the law is good, if one knows how to use it according to the law (or: appropriately), 9/ that is, in the recognition that the law is not for the righteous, but for people who live without the law and without obedience, impious people and sinners, people who are wicked and godless, patricides and matri cides, murderers, 10/ fornicators, pederasts, kidnappers...

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Paul, Example of God’s Mercy (1:13–17)

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pp. 27-31

I, who once was a blasphemer, persecutor, and evil-doer; but I have received mercy, because I acted from ignorance in unbelief. 14/ Indeed, the grace of our Lord has been abundantly rich with faith and love in Christ Jesus. 15/ The word stands firm and deserves all recognition:...

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Exhortation Regarding Heretics (1:18–20)

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pp. 32-34

I transmit to you this instruction. Timothy my child, (in remembrance) of the words of the prophets, which were once given to you, 19/ so that (strengthened) by them you may fight the good fight in faith and with good conscience. Certain people have despised this and suffered shipwreck in the faith; 20/ among these belong Hymenaeus and Alexand...

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On Prayers for All Men (2:1–7)

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pp. 35-43

First of alii .!xhort you to make petition, prayer. intercession, and thanksgiving for all men, 2/ for emperors and all authorities, so that we may be able to lead a quiet and peaceful life in all piety and dignity. 3/ This is the way it should be and is well-pleasing to God, our Savior, 4/ who wants all men to be saved and to come to the recognition of the truth. 5/ For God is one...

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On Prayer by Men and Women (2:8–3:1a)

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pp. 44-49

As far as prayer is concerned, I wish that men everywhere would raise holy hands, without a thought of anger and strife. 9/ And the women should do likewise, in modest deportment with chastity and prudence, (and) should not decorate themselves with braids and gold, (nor with) pearls or expensive clothes, 10/ but rather with ...

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Conduct of Bishops (3:1b–7)

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pp. 50-57

Whoever strives for the office of bishop, desires to take upon himself a good work. 2/ For the bishop should be without reproach. the husband of one wife. sober. prudent, moderate, hospitable. skillful in teaching, 3/ not given to wine nor brawling but kind. peaceable, and not covetous, 4/ one who governs his own house well and keeps his children in respectful...

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On Conduct of Deacons (3:8–13)

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pp. 58-59

Likewise the deacons should be honorable, not double-tongued, not given to immoderate enjoyment of wine, not greedy, 9/ (people) who cherish the mystery of faith with a pure conscience. 10/ They should first be tested, then they should execute their duty, if they are irreproachable....

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Word Concerning the Church (3:14–16)

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pp. 60-63

(All) this I am writing to you in the hope of coming to you soon; 15/ but in case I am delayed, you should (at least) know how one ought to conduct one's life in the household of God; that is the church of the living God, the support and fortress of the truth. 16/ And most certainly great is the m...

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Concerning the False Teaching (4:1–5)

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pp. 64-67

The spirit says explicitly that in future times people will fall away from faith, will adhere to spirits of error and demonic teachings, 2/ based on deceitful preaching by liars, who carry a brand on their consciences; 3/ they forbid marriage and (demand) abstinence from foods, which God created to be received with thanksgiving b...

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Instructions for Timothy (4:6–10)

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pp. 68-69

If you instruct the brothers in this way, you will be a true servant of Christ Jesus, (one) who is being reared by the words of faith and of the good teaching of which you have become a follower. 7/ But reject godless old wives' tales. Continue to train yourself in piety. 8/ For bodily t raining is of little benefit, but piety brings...

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Timothy as Example (4:11–5:2)

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pp. 70-72

Thus you should preach and teach.12/ Let no one be contemptuous of your youth; rather. become an example to those who believe. in word and in conduct, in love. faith. and purity. 13/ Until I come (again). continue the reading aloud (of the scriptures). the exhortation. the teaching. 14/ Use the gift of grace that is in you. which was imparted to you through the word of...

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On Widows (5:3–16)

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pp. 73-76

Honor widows. if they are true widows! 4/ If a widow has children or grandchildren. they should first learn to show piety toward their own family and to show gratitude to their forebears. This is well-pleasing before God. 5/ The one who is a true widow and solitary, however. has placed her hope in God and remains in prayer and supplication day and night. 6/ The o...

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On Presbyters (5:17–20)

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pp. 77-79

The presbyters who govern well as presiding officers should be deemed worthy of a double compensation. especially those who are engaged in speaking and teaching. 18/ For the scripture says: "You shall not muzzle an ox when it is treading out the grain," and "the worker is worthy of his wages." 19/ Do not accept a complaint ag...

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Exhortation to Timothy (5:21–25)

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pp. 80-81

I adjure you before God and Christ Jesus and the chosen angels: observe this without prejudice and do nothing according to partiality. 22/ Do not be hasty in the laying on of hands and do not have any part in the sins of others. Keep yourself pure. 23/ Do not drink water only. but take some wine because of your stomach...

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On Slaves (6:1, 2a)

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p. 82

All those who are slaves under the yoke must count their masters worthy of all respect, so that the name of God and the teaching are not blasphemed. 2/ But those who have masters who are believers should not think lightly of them because they...

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Warning Against False Doctrine (6:2b–5)

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p. 83

This is the way you should teach and preach. 3/ But if someone spreads false teachings and does not adhere to the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and to the teaching which is in accordance with (right) religion, 4/ then he is a pompous (person) who does not understand anything...

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Warning Against Avarice (6:6–10)

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pp. 84-86

(And indeed) religion is of great profit if it is coupled with self-sufficiency. 7/ After all, we brought nothing into the world with us, as also we can take nothing with us out (of this world). 8/ If we have food and clothing, then we will be content. 9/ But those who want to become rich, fall...

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The Battle of Faith (6:11–16)

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pp. 87-90

But you, man of God, flee from (all) this I Pursue uprightness, piety, faith, love, patience, gentleness. 12/ Fight the good fight of faith, take hold of eternal life I To this you have been called, this you professed in the good confession of faith before many witnesses. 13/ I command you in the presence of...

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Rules for the Wealthy (6:17–19)

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p. 91

Command those who are rich in this world not to be proud, nor to place their hope in the uncertainty of riches, but in God who grants us everything richly for enjoyment. 18/ They should do good, be rich in good works, generous and ready to share; 19/ they should lay u...

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Warning Against False “Gnosis” (6:20–21)

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pp. 92-94

0 Timothy. guard the deposit (which has been entrusted to you). turn away from godless chatter and the contradictions of the false "knowledge:· 21/ which some have professed and have fallen away from faith. The grace be with you. ...

Second Epistle to Timothy

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Salutation; Christian Tradition and Apostolic Suffering (1:1–14)

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pp. 97-105

Paul, apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, (entrusted) with the promise of life in Christ Jesus. 2/ to Timothy, his beloved child: grace, mercy and peace from God the father and Christ Jesus our Lord. 3/1 must (always) thank God, whom I serve, as my ancestors did, with a pure conscience, when I remember you constantly, day and night, in my prayers. 4/l long to see you and I recall your t...

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Apostasy or Authentication (1:15–18)

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p. 106

This you know, that all those in Asia have turned away from me, including Phygelus and Hermogenes. 16/ But may the Lord give (his) mercy to the family of Onesiphorus, for he has often refreshed me and was not ashamed of my chains, 17/ but rather, when he came to Rome, he diligently sought and found me: 18/ may the Lord (now also) grant...

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Exhortation to Suffering (2:1–13)

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pp. 107-109

But you, my child, be strong in the grace (as it is) in Christ Jesus, 2/ and that which you have heard from me before many witnesses, entrust to reliable people who, in turn,.are capable of teaching others. 31 As a good soldier of Christ Jesus accept your share in suffering. 41 No one who goes forth into the battlefield becomes ...

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Personal Authentication in View of Heretics (2:14–26)

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pp. 110-114

You must remind (the people) of this and adjure (them) in the face of God not to bring ruin upon their hearers through disputes about words (which are) useful for nothing. 16/ Make every effort to present yourself before God as proven, as a worker who need not be ashamed, who teaches the word of truth rightly. 16/ But flee from godless chatter: because (throughout...

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Heretics are the Sinners of Last Days (3:1–9)

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pp. 115-117

You should know that in the last days hard times will come. 2/ For men will be selfish and greedy, boastful, arrogant, blasphemers, disobedient to their parents, ungrattful, wicked, 3/ intolerant, intransigent, slanderers, without self-control, savage, not loving the good, 4/ traitors, reckless, puffed up, devoted to pleasure rather than devout, 6/ who appear to be...

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Summary Exhortation (3:10–4:8)

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pp. 118-121

But you have faithf1,1lly followed my teaching, my conduct, my resolve, faith, patience, Jove, eni:turance, 11/ persecutions and sufferings, which I encountered in Antioch, Jconium, and Lystra. Some of these I endured, and from all of them the Lord rescued me. 12/ But all those who want to lead a pious life in Christ Jesus...

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Description of Paul’s Situation (4:9–12)

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p. 122

Make every effort to come to me quickly. 10/ For Demas has left me, because he fell in love with this world, and he has gone to Thessalonica, Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia; 11/ only Luke is staying with me. Get Mark and bring him with you, f...

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Instructions for Timothy (4:13–15)

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p. 123

When you come, bring the coat that I left in Troas with Carpus. and also the books, especially the parchments. 14/ Alexander the coppersmith did me a great deal of harm-the Lord will give him (his) recompense according to his deed!-15/ you should also be on your guard against him, because...

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Personal Information about Paul (4:16–18)

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p. 124

At my first defense no one stood by me, but everyone had deserted me-may it not be counted against them!-17/ but the Lord stood by me and gave me strength-that through me the preaching might be proclaimed far and wide, and that all nations might be able to hear it-and thus I was rescued from the lion's mouth. 18/ The Lord ...

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Greetings and Valediction (4:19–22)

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pp. 125-130

Greet Prisca, Aquila, and the family of Onesiphorus. 20/ Erastus remained in Corinth. I had to leave Trophimus behind in Miletus. because he was sick. 21/Make every effort to come before the winter. Eubulus, Pudens, Linus. Claudia, and all the brothers here send their greetings. The Lord be with your spirit...

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The Epistle to Titus

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pp. 130-131

Initial greeting, 1:1-4. Titus must install "presbyters" on Crete, 1: 5, 6; in order to give a basis for this request, a church order for bishops is appended which also mentions the opponents, 1:7-9. There are many such opponents, especially on Crete, 1:10-16. Church order in the form of lists of rules for the household, 2: 1; for the old men, 2:2; the old and the young women, 2:3-5; the yo...

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Initial Greeting (1:1–4)

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p. 131

Paul. servant of God and apostle of Christ Jesus-according to the faith (which those possess who are) chosen by God. and according to the recognition of truth, as it corresponds to our religion. 2/ on the basis of the hope of eternal life: God, who cannot lie, has promised this to us before tim...

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Installation of Presbyters and Regulations for the Bishop (1:5–9)

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pp. 132-134

I have left you in Crete' so that you m ight set right what remains and install presbyters in each city according to my directions (which I gave) to you. 6/ (Such a man should be) w ithout reproach, the husband of one wife, (and should) have children who are believers and who cannot be accused of loose living and disobedience. 7/ For a bishop, as t he householde...

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Against Heretics in Crete (1:10–16)

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pp. 135-138

For there are many insubordinate men. foolish talkers and deceivers. especially those of the circumcision; 11 I these must be silenced. For they ruin entire families and teach what is not becoming for the sake of dishonest gain.12/ In fact one of them said, (speaking) as their own prophet, "Cretans are...

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Regulations for Men, Women, Slaves (2:1–10)

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pp. 139-141

But as for you, proclaim what is proper to the sound teaching. 2/ Old men should be sober, dignified, prudent, sound in faith, love, (and) endurance. 3/ In the same way old women: priestly in their conduct, not given to gossip nor to a great deal of drinking, teachers of all good things. 4/ Then they can advise the young women to love their husbands and children, 5/ to live prudently and in sincerity, to fulfill their household duties well and to obey ,,,

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Conduct Based on the History of Salvation (2:11–15)

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pp. 142-146

For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all men, 12/ and it educates us to renounce godlessness and worldly desires, and to lead a prudent, upright, and pious life in this age. 13/ Because we await the blessed hope and the appearance of the glory of the great God and of our savior Christ Jesus: 14/ he gave himself for us, in order to redeem us from ...

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General Exhortations Based on History of Salvation (3:1–8a)

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pp. 147-150

Admonish them to be subject to magistrates and authorities, to be obedient, to be prepared for every good work, 2/ not to defame anyone, to be peaceable (and) kind (and) to show all gentleness to all men. 3/ Once we too were (caught) in foolishness, disobedience, and error, slaves to...

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Exhortations and Warning about Heretics (3:8b–11)

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p. 151

About all this you must speak firmly, in order that (all) those who have put their confidence in God learn to be concerned with good works. That is good and beneficial for men. 9/ But avoid foolish investigations about genealogies. quarrels, ...

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Assignments and Greetings (3:12–14)

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pp. 152-154

When I send Artemas or Tychicus to you. make every effort to come to me in Nicopolis; because I have decided to spend the winter there. 13/ Equip Zenas the lawyer and Apollos well for the winter journey so that they lack nothing. 14/ Our people should learn anyway to take care of the n...

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Concluding Greeting (3:15)

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pp. 155-157

All those who are with me send their greetings to you. Greet those who love us in faith. Grace be with you all. ...

Appendices:

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pp. 158-160

Bibliography:

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pp. 161-164

Indices:

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pp. 165-173

Designer's Notes

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pp. 174-177

Book Spine

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