Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-v

The Author, Endpapers

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p. vi

Contents

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pp. vii-x

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Foreword

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pp. xi-xii

The name Hermeneia, Greek ἑρμηνεία, has been chosen as the title of the commentary series to which this volume belongs. The word Hermeneia has a rich background in the history of biblical interpretation as a term used in the ancient Greek-speaking world for the detailed, systematic exposition of a scriptural work. It is hoped that the series, like its name, will carry forward this old and venerable tradition...

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Editor’s Note

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pp. xiii-xiv

The English translation of the Letter to the Romans was provided by the author and reflects his exegetical decisions. Other biblical texts are usually from the New Revised Standard Version...

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Preface

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pp. xv-xvi

That Romans was a missionary document aimed at overcoming the premises of imperial honor was first suggested by a missionary to Africa in 1863. This accounts for the dedication to the memory of Bishop John William Colenso on the frontispiece of this volume. Although he did not employ the categories of honor and shame as shaped by modern social theory...

Sources and Abbreviations

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pp. xvii-xxxiv

Works Cited

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pp. xxxv-lxx

Introduction

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1. The Approach of the Commentary

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pp. 1-4

This commentary employs all of the standard methods of historical-critical exegesis. This includes historical analysis; text criticism, form criticism, and redaction criticism; rhetorical analysis; social scientific reconstruction of the audience situation; an historical reconstruction of the situations in Rome and Spain, historical and cultural analysis of the honor, shame, and imperial systems in the Greco-Roman world...

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2. Text-Critical Issues in a Sixteen-Chapter Letter

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pp. 4-18

The first task in this commentary is to deal with the issues related to the text of Romans, which are among the most complicated in the field of NT study. Although certainty is never achievable in this area, the conclusions drawn from text-critical analysis become the conjectures on which the subsequent tasks of translation, rhetorical analysis, historical reconstruction, and the exegesis of individual verses must depend...

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3. Chronological and Compositional Circumstances

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pp. 18-23

The historical-critical method requires “a firm chronological structure” because “chronology is the skeleton of history,” in the formulation of Edgar Krentz.84 There is a broad consensus that Paul dictated the letter from Corinth or its vicinity in the period immediately before departing on the final trip to Jerusalem to deliver the offering from the Gentile churches...

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4. The Rhetoric of Romans: Evangelical Persuasion

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pp. 23-46

While older commentaries and even some published recently view Romans “primarily as a repository of theology,” this commentary follows the lead of recent developments that view the letter as “a work of Christian rhetoric, aiming to persuade.”138 In ancient rhetoric there were five means of persuasion: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery, all of which are evident in Romans...

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5. The Cultural Situation in Rome: The Pyramid of Honor

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pp. 46-59

The interpretive method in this commentary is to understand the letter as far as possible within its cultural context, rather than treating it as an abstract theological document such as Paul’s self-confession or the defense of some modern doctrinal stance. In view of the vast amount of information available about the city of Rome and the need to avoid duplicating details in the commentary...

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6. The History and Orientation of the Christian Communities in Rome

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pp. 59-74

As we have seen, interpreting the rhetoric and argument of a letter requires a grasp of the “first audience” to which it is directed.381 The author’s understanding of the audience is an aspect of the “rhetorical situation,” and since the modern interpreter is so much farther from that audience than is the author, the reconstruction of its situation needs to be augmented with relevant historical details...

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7. The Cultural Situation in Spain: Subjugated Barbarians

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pp. 74-79

If Romans is an ambassadorial letter seeking support for a mission project in Spain, the obvious question is why such a letter was needed. There are no indications that similar letters were written in preparation of his ministries in Philippi, Corinth, Ephesus, or anywhere else. The obvious way to investigate this question is to examine the cultural situation in Spain...

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8. The Purpose of Romans in the Plan for the Spanish Mission

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pp. 80-92

In 1969 Günter Klein articulated the issue of this section in a manner that has remained true for many: Romans “has thus far revealed less of the secret of its occasion than has any other authentic letter of Paul.”553 In 1991 Ann Jervis began her study of the Purpose of Romans with reference to the obscurity of this letter’s purpose...

Commentary

I. The Exordium (“Introduction”) (1:1–12)

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A. The Inauguration of Paul’s Communication with Believers in Rome: Sender, Apostolic Credentials, Confession, Address, and Greeting (1:1–7)

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pp. 93-116

The study of classical rhetoric reveals the crucial role of the exordium for the understanding of a subsequent argument. The exordium not only introduces the speaker in a manner calculated to appeal to the audience and lend credence to the speaker’s cause, but it also frequently introduces the topics to be addressed in a speech1...

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B. Thanksgiving and Causa: The Announcement and Rationale of Paul’s Forthcoming Visit (1:8–12)

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pp. 117-126

In Johannes Weiss’s analysis, this pericope has little rhetorical color.1 It is loosely organized in three sentences, the first of which contains a brief thanksgiving introduced by “first.” Some commentators perceive a measure of rhetorical awkwardness in the lack of a “second,”2 but this is a rather stereotypical Pauline epistolary feature...

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II. The Narratio (“Statement of Facts”): The Background of Paul’s Missionary Project (1:13–15)

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pp. 127-134

This short pericope opens with the sense of starting “afresh”1 with a typical, epistolary disclosure formula.2 A straightforward rhetorical style marks the paragraph and a hint of the forthcoming eloquence in the letter is visible in the elegant repetition of τε καί, (“and”) linking the antithetical pairs in 1:14...

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III. The Propositio (“Thesis, Basic Contention”): The Thesis about the Gospel as the Powerful Embodiment of the Righteousness of God (1:16–17)

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pp. 135-147

That this passage contains the theme or thesis of Romans is almost universally accepted among commentators.1 Several commentators identify vv. 16b-17 as the thesis,2 but this artificially divides an integral syntactical unit in v. 16 and severs the issue of Paul’s lack of shame in v. 16a from its natural antithesis in the power of God to create righteousness...

IV. The Probatio (“Proof”): Four Proofs of the Thesis and Its Implications for the Roman Congregations (1:18–15:13)

A. The First Proof: The Gospel Expresses the Impartial Righteousness of God by Overturning Claims of Cultural Superiority and by Rightwising Jews and Greeks through Grace Alone (1:18–4:25)

1. The Revelation of Divine Wrath (1:18–32)

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a. Thesis and Rationale: The Exposure of Human Suppression of the Truth about God (1:18–23)

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pp. 148-162

The first proof in Paul’s argument opens with a rhetorical tour de force,1 a beautifully balanced thesis statement about the revelation of wrath in 1:18,2 which is followed by a rationale expressed in four periods with balanced lines. The two periods in this half of the pericope describe the shape of human sin requiring the response of divine wrath...

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b. Elaboration: Human Distortion as a Current Indication of Divine Wrath (1:24–32)

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pp. 163-191

This second half of the first pericope provides an elaboration of the thematic statement in 1:18, with rhetorical finesse comparable to the first half of the pericope. The thematic links of terminological transplacement and paronomasia that hold the two halves of the first pericope together have been pointed out by Klostermann, Jeremias, Bouwmann, and Popkes1...

2. The Righteous Judgment of Greeks and Jews (2:1–29)

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a. Diatribe concerning Impartial Judgment according to Works (2:1–16)

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pp. 192-218

The address to the imaginary interlocutor in 2:1 marks a vivid rhetorical shift into diatribe style,1 which generalizes the application of the point made in the preceding pericope concerning the liability of those who practice evil. The links between this half-pericope and the foregoing are enhanced by multiple examples of paronomasia in the first paragraph...

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b. Diatribe concerning the Nonexemption of Jews from Impartial Judgment (2:17–29)

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pp. 219-237

Paul returns to the style of diatribe in 2:17-24 with rhetorical accusations and questions to an imaginary interlocutor. In an effective apostrophe, the interlocutor is emphatically addressed as “you” in vv. 17-27,1 replicating the style of vv. 1-5. The first two verbs contain an alliterative wordplay: ἐπονομάζῃ καὶ ἐπαναπαύῃ (“call yourself and find your comfort”)...

3. The Evidence of Universal Sin (3:1–20)

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a. Diatribe Refuting Objections to Impartial Judgment (3:1–8)

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pp. 238-252

In the last two pericopes Paul made a case that Jewish descent provides no exemption from the impartial judgment of God that is based on works actually performed rather than status allegedly inherited. This raises the question of whether the divine election of Israel as a chosen people had been abrogated. If so, this would imply that God’s Word was invalid...

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b. Diatribe and Catena of Quotations Demonstrating Universal Sin (3:9–20)

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pp. 253-267

These verses present the fifth and climactic dialogue between the imaginary interlocutor and Paul. In this instance the issue of superior advantage touched on in 3:1-2 is reiterated and answered with a statement of universal sin in 3:9. The diatribal exchange is organized in two double sentences matching those in 3:1-8...

4. The Righteousness of God and Setting Right of All by Faith Alone (3:21–31)

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a. Thesis and Rationale concerning the Triumph of Righteousness in Christ (3:21–26)

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pp. 268-293

The impression of semantic and rhetorical obscurity1 or complexity2 in this pericope is caused partially by the citation of a confessional or liturgical fragment in 3:25-26a, partially by the compact use of Pauline theological formulas, but primarily by a stylistic shift that has not been understood until relatively recently. As Douglas A. Campbell demonstrates, this pericope departs...

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b. Diatribe Affirming the One God of Jews and Gentiles (3:27–31)

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pp. 294-303

This passage represents an abrupt change in style from the elevated “grand style” of 3:21-26 to a crisp, dialogical exchange between Paul and an interrogator.1 The elliptical style requires the inclusion of the ellipsed materials in an English translation, as supplied above within square brackets. A skillfully constructed series of six rhetorical questions...

5. Abraham and the Righteousness That Comes through Faith (4:1–25)

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a. Diatribe and the First Part of a Midrash Showing That Abraham Received Righteousness by Faith before He Was Circumcised (4:1–12)

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pp. 304-321

The diatribe in the preceding pericope is continued in this half-pericope with questions from the interrogator in 4:1, 3, 9, and 10 that I have enclosed in single quotation marks in the translation.1 The substantive questions in vv. 1 and 9 require negative responses from the audience that are presupposed by the following explanations appended in Paul’s voice...

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b. Expansion of the Midrash Showing That Abraham’s Promise Comes to Those Who Are Righteous through Faith (4:13–25)

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pp. 322-343

The midrashic exegesis that commenced in 4:1-12 continues in vv. 13-25, with citations from Gen 17:5 and 15:5. The center of attention shifts from Abraham to the recipients of the promise1 given to his descendants. Whereas the key words in the preceding pericope were “work,” “circumcision,” and “uncircumcision,” the theme here shifts to the “promise”...

B. The Second Proof: Life in Christ as a New System of Honor That Replaces the Quest for Status through Conformity to the Law (5:1–8:39)

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1. Introduction: Righteousness in Christ Requires a New System of Boasting (5:1–11)

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pp. 344-368

It is widely recognized that this pericope provides both an introduction to the themes of Rom 5–8 and a development of the preceding argument.1 It develops and extends the preceding argument while answering questions and objections. In 5:1-2 Paul opens the argument with a classic transitio, defined by the Rhetorica ad Herennium as “a figure which briefly recalls what has been said...

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2. Abundant Grace in Christ Overwhelms Adam’s Reign of Death (5:12–21)

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pp. 369-389

Commentators widely assume that 5:12-21 is a separate pericope, opened by the transitional formula, “on this account” in v. 12 and closed with a christological clausula, “through Jesus Christ our Lord” in v. 21.1 The role and appropriateness of this pericope in the argument of Romans have been debated for a long time...

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3. Diatribe and Enthymemes Concerning the Death of the Sinful Self and the New Life in Christ (6:1–14)

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pp. 390-412

The length of this pericope is a matter of dispute, with some commentators believing that it contains vv. 1–12,1 while others find that it continues through the end of v. 15.2 The recent analyses of the argument by David Hellholm and of the structure by Hendrikus Boers make the extension of the pericope through v. 14 highly probable3...

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4. Diatribe Concerning Living to God under the Grace and the Lordship of Christ (6:15–23)

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pp. 413-427

While commentators disagree about whether the new pericope begins with v. 121 or with v. 15,2 the τί οὖν (“what then?”) at the beginning of v. 1 and v. 15 indicates the beginnings of discrete sections. Verse 15 states a false conclusion arising out of the formulation of v. 14 that believers “are not under law but under grace”3...

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5. Syllogism Concerning Life in Christ as Freedom from the Law (7:1–6)

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pp. 428-439

Once again Paul opens a new pericope with a diatribal exchange in an opening sentence that has a three-line structure typical of earlier exchanges. Verse 1c lays down the premise of a syllogism1 on the topic of the law that was announced in 6:14 and developed in a subsidiary sense in 6:15-23....

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6. Speech-in-Character Concerning the Moral Status of the Law (7:7–12)

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pp. 440-453

The formulation of Rom 7:5 concerning sinful passions being aroused by the law could easily lead to the objection that law would thereby fall into the moral status of sin. This is the false conclusion that Paul denies in the diatribal exchange of 7:7 and goes on to explain with the idea of law making humans conscious of sin.1 The status of the law is so crucial for the development of Paul’s case...

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7. Speech-in-Character Concerning the Effect of the Law (7:13–25)

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pp. 454-473

This pericope continues the “speech-in-character”1 in which Paul’s preconversion zealotism is depicted. This passage opens with a diatribal exchange organized in double-line sentences.2 The intense, first person discourse marked by a high level of pathos characteristic of προσωποπεία (“speech-in-character”) that began in 7:7...

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8. Thesis and Rationale Concerning the Cosmic Struggle Between Flesh and Spirit (8:1–17)

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pp. 474-503

The rough transition between 7:25 and 8:1 has elicited proposals to place 8:1 after 8:21 or to consider v. 1 a non-Pauline marginal gloss.2 Wilckens argues that the first option is rendered implausible by the tight connection between v. 2 and v. 33 and that a gloss is rendered unlikely by the Pauline diction in v. 1 as well as by the links between “punishment” in v. 1, the powerlessness of the law in 8:2-4...

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9. Thesis and Rationale Concerning the Hopeful Suffering of the Children of God (8:18–30)

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pp. 504-530

While commentators agree that this is a separate pericope, its links with the preceding pericope as well as with 5:1-11 are obvious. The theme of sonship in 8:14-15 is carried forward in vv. 19 and 23; the glorification scheme in 8:17 is picked up in vv. 18, 21, 30; and the theme of the Spirit continues throughout chap. 8. Just as at the beginning of the last pericope...

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10. Conclusion: The Status of the Elect Based on Divine Love (8:31–39)

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pp. 531-554

This pericope not only provides the conclusion of chap. 8, dealing finally with the issue concerning the condemnation of believers mentioned in 8:1, but also constitutes the peroration of the entire second proof, which began in 5:1.1 The rhetorical or even hymnic qualities of this passage have often been observed,2 but efforts to discern citations from pre-Pauline liturgical or catechetical materials in vv. 31-32 or 38-39 have not been successful3...

C. The Third Proof: The Triumph of Divine Righteousness in the Gospel’s Mission to Israel and the Gentiles (9:1–11:36)

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1. Introduction: The Tragic Riddle of Israel’s Unbelief (9:1–5)

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pp. 555-569

This artfully constructed pericope provides an introduction1 to the third proof, which is the counterpart of the concluding section, 11:33-36.2 It begins in first person singular style3 with a solemn, threefold asseveration of Paul’s sorrow, three witnesses as it were, in hierarchical order.4 The description of Paul’s pain in v. 2 is in the form of synonymous parallelism with an artful chiastic pattern...

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2. Thesis and the First Part of a Midrash on Israel and the Righteousness of Divine Election (9:6–18)

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pp. 570-586

The connection of this pericope with the preceding introduction appears nonexistent to some,1 while the link between the theme of election, stated explicitly in v. 11, and the earlier development of the theme in 8:28f., is clearly visible.2 A particularly strong link is established between the “Israelites” of v. 4 and “Israel” in v. 6, as well as between “flesh” in v. 3 and v. 8...

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3. Diatribe and the Second Half of a Midrash Refuting Objections (9:19–29)

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pp. 587-605

The fusion of a formal diatribe into the framework of an extended midrashic exegesis resumes with v. 19. As in 9:1-5 the first person singular μοι (“to me”) again refers to Paul, and the switch from the more collective plural of v. 14 focuses attention on Paul as the one responsible for the answer to the rhetorical question of 9:19. The imaginary interlocutor responds to the hard statement of divine sovereignty...

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4. Diatribe on the Failure to Submit to Divine Righteousness, Which Is Caused by Misguided Zeal (9:30–10:4)

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pp. 606-620

While J. P. Louw perceives the semantic links that join 9:30—10:4,1 many current commentators identify 9:30-33 as an independent section concluding the argument of chap. 9,2 while placing the opening verses of chap. 10 in the next pericope, which extends to 10:4, 13, or 21.3 There is ambiguity in this decision, however, because it is widely admitted that 9:30-33 provides the “theme” discussed in chap. 104...

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5. Pesher Confirming Righteousness by Faith (10:5–13)

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pp. 621-633

Given the skillful interweaving of Paul’s argument, it is a good question whether a new pericope begins at v. 5, or indeed, at v. 14. It is clear that 10:5-13 provides a scriptural continuation of the theme of righteousness mentioned in 9:30f. and 10:3-4.1 The pericope relates the theme of righteousness to the response of Jews and Gentiles to the gospel...

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6. Syllogism and Citation-Chain Concerning the Gospel Preached but Rejected (10:14–21)

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pp. 634-649

There is a wide consensus that 10:14-21 constitutes a separate pericope,1 with a shift in rhetorical style to that of diatribe and an inferential οὖν (“therefore”) that carries the argument forward from the end of the preceding pericope. The diatribe opens with an elegant rhetorical “climax,” sometimes referred to as a gradatio2...

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7. Diatribe and Midrash concerning the Status of Israel (11:1–10)

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pp. 650-665

That 11:1-10 is an integral pericope is widely acknowledged in the commentaries.1 This passage is a brilliant fusion of diatribe and midrash. It is organized in two lines of argument inaugurated by the rhetorical questions in vv. 1 and 7.2 Each question is followed by an answer in thesis form, supported with appropriate scriptural proofs in midrashic fashion...

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8. Diatribe and Allegorical Enthymeme Dealing with the Missional Purpose of Israel’s Trespass (11:11–24)

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pp. 666-693

Commentators have had difficulty discerning the logical structure and extent of this part of Romans, with Dodd placing all of 11:1-32 in a single pericope1 and O’Neill extending the pericope from 10:16 to 11:36,2 while Johnson reduces it to 11:7-36.3 Among the great majority who view 11:11-24 as a separate pericope, Barrett and others perceive three paragraphs in 11:11-12, 13-16, and 17-244...

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9. Oracular Disclosure and Enthymeme on the Mystery of Global Salvation (11:25–32)

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pp. 694-712

This pericope dealing with the mystery of salvation serves to explain the allusion in 11:23-24 about the future engrafting of Israel alongside Gentile converts into the holy olive tree. Although commentaries usually view this section as concentrated on Israel’s salvation,1 the entire world is in fact in view2 with respect to the power of the gospel to overcome otherwise irresolvable barriers...

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10. Conclusion: A Hymn on the Majesty of God as Revealed in the Mysterious Plan of Global Salvation (11:33–36)

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pp. 713-723

The poetic quality of this composition has been widely accepted, suggesting a hymn of nine or ten lines with triple structuring within several lines.1 The Nestle-Aland 26th and 27th editions print the hymn out in strophic form, placing the words “and wisdom and knowledge of God” into a separate line that results in a ten-line hymn...

D. The Fourth Proof: Living Together according to the Gospel so as to Sustain the Hope of Global Transformation (12:1–15:13)

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1. Introduction: The Thesis concerning the Motivation and Assessment of Praiseworthy Behavior (12:1–2)

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pp. 724-735

There is a consensus among current exegetes that these two verses provide the main theme,1 the introduction,2 summary,3 or a kind of title paragraph4 for the subsequent chapters of moral exhortation that I am calling the fourth proof of the letter. Unfortunately, this is usually presented as if Paul were setting forth an ethic for the ages...

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2. The Elaboration of Sober Self-Assessment and the Exercise of Charismatic Gifts (12:3–8)

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pp. 736-754

This pericope is organized in a rhythmic fashion, with the first sentence composed of four nicely balanced clauses and the next with six similar clauses.1 In the first sentence there is an elaborate paronomasia,2 with the element φρονεῖν (“to be minded”) repeated four times, with the first and last in the antithetical constructions of “superminded” and “sober-minded”...

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3. The Elaboration of Guidelines for Genuine Love (12:9–21)

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pp. 755-779

Despite the tendency of exegetes to view this section as “a series of loosely connected items of exhortation,”1 it is artfully constructed for rhetorical impact and closely related to the tensions between Christian groups in Rome. When the copulative ἐστίν is supplied2 to the first clause of v. 9, “the love [is] without pretense” serves as the thesis statement for the pericope3...

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4. Diatribe concerning Fulfilling Obligations to the Governing Authorities (13:1–7)

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pp. 780-803

This passage starts afresh, with no transitional links to the preceding pericope. It is important to realize that apart from the late division of Scripture into verses and chapters, 13:1-7 joins directly onto the gnomic collection of sayings that ends what we call chapter 12. The gnomic style of the preceding pericope continues in 13:1a without transition. There are elements of diatribe in this pericope...

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5. The Admonition to Fulfill Law through the Agape Meal (13:8–10)

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pp. 804-815

This brief section is a symmetrically constructed, selfcontained admonition concerning love as law’s fulfillment. Although the opening maxim is linked with the foregoing verse by the term “obligation” in 13:8, and with the earlier admonition to genuine love in 12:9, this pericope is quite independent in structure and rationale.1 The double-lined strophes of vv. 8 and 10 are exactly parallel to each other...

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6. The Admonition to Moral Alertness in the Last Days (13:11–14)

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pp. 816-828

Current commentators agree that this is a separate pericope, linked to the foregoing material but having a distinct structure and theme of its own.1 The phrase καὶ τοῦτο (“and this”)2 introduces the following cited material.3 The verb εἰδότες (“knowing”) signals that the citation is known to the audience.4 The cited material in the new pericope...

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7. Exemplary Guidelines for the Weak and the Strong (14:1–12)

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pp. 829-852

The pericope of 14:1-121 opens with a thematic exhortation in the form of a typical Pauline dystich, set off from the previous pericope by the particle δέ (“and/but/ now”), which in this case is not translated.2 This “heading”3 is followed by five lines linked by anaphora, each beginning with ὃς (“one”) or ὁ (“the”)4...

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8. Exemplary Guidelines for Mutual Upbuilding in Pluralistic Congregations (14:13–23)

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pp. 853-873

That 14:13-23 is a self-contained pericope is widely assumed,1 but suggestions that it has a chiastic structure are not compelling.2 The admonition of 14:13 provides the theme of avoiding destructive behavior with three balanced clauses.3 The admonitory style is continued throughout the pericope.4 The admonitions are supported by authoritative quotations from dominical and biblical sources...

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9. The Obligation to Follow Christ’s Example in Edifying Each Other (15:1–6)

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pp. 874-885

This pericope is a self-contained unit,1 opening with an ethical declaration that moves beyond the theological generalization at the end the preceding pericope,2 and closes with a homiletical benediction urging conformity with Christ’s example in dealing with congregational differences.3 Scriptural proofs replace the dialogical style of theological admonition and reasoning in the preceding two pericopes4...

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10. Conclusion: Recapitulating the Inclusive Ethic That Will Contribute to the Mission of Global Transformation (15:7–13)

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pp. 886-899

Although some commentators link 15:7-13 with 15:1-6,1 most current commentators separate them into two separate units because of the parallel benedictions in 15:5-6 and 15:13 and because of the shift in terminology from “weak-strong” in the former and “Jew-Gentile” in the latter.2 This pericope roughly matches the structure of the preceding paragraph...

V. The Peroratio (“Conclusion”) An Appeal for Cooperation in Missionary Activities in Jerusalem, Rome, and Spain (15:14–16:23)

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A. Recapitulation of Paul’s Missionary Calling and Strategy (15:14–21)

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pp. 900-917

This passage corresponds in style and content to Rom 1:1-12,1 providing a sober recapitulation of Paul’s earlier argument.2 Review does not lend itself to eloquence, here or elsewhere. In his survey of classical references to recapitulation, Josef Martin observes that the “simple, plain” style can become a “dry occasion” which the rhetor must counter3...

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B. The Report on Travel Plans and an Appeal to Participate in Present and Future Missionary Activities (15:22–33)

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pp. 918-940

In this pericope Paul shifts from the recapitulation of his apostolic calling and strategy into a discussion of current and future plans, carefully opening the door to potential cooperation with the Roman churches. The shift from a review of church-building activities with others to a visit πρὸς ὑμᾶς (“to you”) in the opening verse of this pericope indicates a change of subject and focus1...

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C. The Recommendation of Phoebe as Missionary Patroness (16:1–2)

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pp. 941-948

That 16:1-2 comprises a separate pericope is frequently noted by commentators1 but its relation to the rest of the peroratio, including particularly the succeeding greetings, deserves careful attention. The inclusion of the transitional particle δέ (“now”) relates these verses to the foregoing in a manner that precludes the possibility of the recommendation standing alone2...

D. Greetings and Commendations between Ministerial Leaders (16:3–16, 21–23)

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1. Greetings to Congregational Leaders in Rome (16:3–16a)

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pp. 949-974

Greetings typically are placed at the end of personal letters in antiquity1 and appear much more frequently in the period after 70 C.E.2 They appear in three types: the first person greeting is extended directly from the author to the recipient; the second person greeting asks the recipient to greet someone else; and the third person greeting is extended from someone other than the author to the recipient3...

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2. Greetings from Congregational Leaders in Corinth and Elsewhere (16:16b, 21–23)

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pp. 975-984

The impression of a somewhat random sequence of greetings that marked 16:3-16a is continued here, yet each has a significant bearing on Paul’s missionary project.1 When the rhetorical function of these greetings is understood, it becomes clear that this is by no means a “feeble conclusion” to Paul’s magnificent letter.2 The list begins with an inclusive greeting from all of the churches of Christ...

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The First Interpolation: The Church’s Campaign against Heretics (16:17–20a)

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pp. 985-996

The rhetoric of this passage is different both in style and in logical development1 from the rest of Romans. The distinctively Pauline parallelisms, antitheses, and other flourishes are absent. The awkwardly related admonitions of 16:17b and c are justified not by a theological rationale, as in the rest of Romans, but by a stereotypical description of the heretics in 16:18...

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The Second Interpolation: The Supersessionist Doxology (16:25–27)

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pp. 997-1011

The structure of this short pericope is that of a sprawling nominal sentence without an active verb, with the object of the acclamation in the dative. None of the distinctive features of Pauline style are visible, such as parallelism, assonance, or chiasm. J. K. Elliott’s comprehensive analysis of its style is therefore forced to restrict itself to grammatical observations: “Three prepositional phrases depend on the infinitive στηρίξαι...

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E. The Epistolary Benediction (16:24, 20b)

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pp. 1012-1014

With current text-critical studies and standard critical texts supporting for the most part two locations for the benediction, it would be wise to explain its significance in both locations: at the end of 16:20, and after 16:23. When located at the end of the interpolation of 16:17- 20a, the benediction of 16:20b has the effect of blessing the church as it takes steps against heretics...

Glossary of Rhetorical and Exegetical Terms

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pp. 1015-1020

Index

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pp. 1021-1138

Designer's Notes

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pp. 1139-1146