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2 Chronicles

A Commentary

by Ralph W. Klein and edited by Paul D. Hanson

Publication Year: 2012

This volume completes Ralph Klein's magisterial commentary on 1 and 2 Chronicles. Klein incorporates the breakthroughs of the last half-century of research. He shows that the Chronicler used a text of Kings significantly different from the Masoretic Text; argues that the Chronicler's departures from the historical picture of Kings result from a distinctive theological agenda for fourth-century Judah; and explores the contours of that message—what it meant to live faithfully, to participate in temple and worship life, in the absence of political independence.

Published by: Augsburg Fortress Publishers

Series: Hermeneia: A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible

Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. iii-v

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The Author

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p. vi

Ralph W. Klein is Christ Seminary-Seminex professor of Old Testament emeritus at the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, where he served as dean from 1988–99 and again in 2005. Previously he was professor and chair of the department of exegetical theology at Christ Seminary-Seminex, St. Louis; assistant professor at Concordia...

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Foreword

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p. ix

The name Hermeneia, Greek, has been chosen as the title of the commentary series to which this volume belongs. The word Hermeneia has a rich background in the history of biblical interpretation as a term used in the ancient Greek-speaking world for the detailed, systematic exposition of a scriptural work. It is hoped that the series, like its name, will carry forward this old and venerable tradition. A second, entirely practical reason for selecting the name lies in the desire to avoid a long descriptive title and its inevitable acronym, or ...

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Preface

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pp. xi-xii

When I published the first volume of this commentary in 2006, I told the story of my lifetime of research on Chronicles, beginning with my doctoral dissertation at Harvard. I also identified the libraries where I had studied in the United States and internationally and the host of scholarly colleagues who have taught me and inspired me about the depth and intricacies of the Chronicler’s work. This volume builds on that prior history. In 2008 I retired from the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, where I had...

Reference Codes

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pp. xiii-xxviii

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Introduction to the Second Volume of the Hermeneia Chronicles Commentary

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p. 1

While I stand by the positions maintained in the introduction to the first volume of this commentary, I would like to take account of two ensuing monographs and provide other supplementary introductory material...

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Raymond F. Person’s Revision of the Auld Hypothesis

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pp. 1-14

In the introduction to volume 1 of this commentary, I responded critically to the hypothesis of A. G. Auld that Samuel–Kings and Chronicles were based on a common source. Auld had argued that where one history, Samuel– Kings or Chronicles, lacks an account, it was lacking in the common source.2 Raymond F. Person Jr. has now published a monograph that supports and modifies the ...

Commentary

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God Appears to Solomon at Gibeon; Solomon’s Wealth and Trading Ventures (1:1–17)

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pp. 17-18

And Solomon the son of David took firm control over his kingdom, and Yahweh his God was with him and magnified him exceedingly. After Solomon gave orders to all Israel, to the commanders of the thousands and of the hundreds, the judges,1 and to every leader of all Israel, the heads of families, 3/ Solomon and the whole assembly with him went to the high place which was in Gibeon, for there was...

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Solomon’s Correspondence with Huram; Conscription of Laborers 1:18–2:17 (2:1–18)

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pp. 19-31

Solomon decided1 to build a house for the name of Yahweh and a palace for his kingdom. Solomon mustered2 seventy thousand laborers who bore burdens and eighty thousand stonecutters in the hill country, with the overseers over them numbering three thousand and six3 hundred. Solomon sent a message to Huram4 the king of Tyre, “Just...

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Solomon Constructs the Temple (The Vestibule, Holy Place, the Most Holy Place, the Cherubim, the Curtain, and the Pillars) (3:1–17)

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pp. 32-44

Solomon began to build the house of Yahweh in Jerusalem on Mount Moriah, where he had appeared1 to David his father, at the place that David had prepared,2 on the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite. 2/ He began to build in the second month,3 in the fourth year of his reign. 3/ Solomon established4 these (measurements)...

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Solomon Constructs Additional Items for the Temple and Brings into the Temple Items David Had Dedicated (4:1–5:1)

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pp. 45-60

He made a bronze altar, twenty cubits long, twenty1 cubits wide, and ten cubits high.2 2/ Then he made the sea of cast metal; it was round, ten cubits from one rim to the other,3 and five cubits high. A line of thirty4 cubits would encircle it.5 3/ Under it figures resembling a bull6 were all around it, ten to a cubit, encircling the sea all around.7 The ...

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The Transfer of the Ark and the Tent of Meeting; A Theophany after the Deposit of the Ark (5:2–14)

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pp. 61-70

Then Solomon assembled1 to Jerusalem the elders2 of Israel, all the heads of the tribes, and the leaders of the ancestral houses of the Israelites in order to bring up the ark of the covenant of Yahweh from the city of David, which is Zion. 3/ All the Israelites assembled before the king3 at the festival that...

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Solomon’s Prayer at the Dedication of the Temple (6:1–42)

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pp. 71-91

Then Solomon said, “Yahweh intended to dwell in thick darkness. 2/ But I have built1 for you an exalted house2, a place for your enthronement forever.”3 3/ Then the king turned his face and blessed the assembly of Israel, while all the assembly of Israel was standing. 4/ And he said, “Blesse...

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The Two-Week Celebration at the Dedication of the Temple; Yahweh Appears a Second Time to Solomon (7:1–22)

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pp. 92-105

When Solomon had finished praying, fire came down from heaven and consumed the burnt offering and the communion sacrifices, and all the while the glory of Yahweh filled the house. 2/ The priests were unable to enter into the temple of Yahweh1 because the glory of Yahweh filled the house of Yahweh. 3/ All the Israelites were watching...

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Miscellaneous Incidents after the Dedication of the Temple (8:1–18)

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pp. 106-119

At the end of twenty years, during which Solomon had built the house of Yahweh and his own house,2 2/ Solomon built the cities that Huram had given to Solomon and settled the Israelites in them. 3/ Solomon went to Hamath-zobah and prevailed against it. 4/ He built Tadmor3 in the wilderness and all the storage towns that4 he built in Hamath...

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The Visit of the Queen of Sheba; The Conclusion of Solomon’s Reign (9:1–31)

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pp. 120-139

When the queen of Sheba heard the fame1 of Solomon, she came to test Solomon with riddles in Jerusalem, with a very great retinue and camels2 bearing spices and very much gold and precious stones. When she came to Solomon she discussed with him3 all that was on her mind. 2/ Solomon explained..

The Reign of Rehoboam (10:1–12:16)

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The Division of the Kingdom (10:1–11:4)

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pp. 140-156

Rehoboam went to Shechem because all Israel had come1 to Shechem to make him king. 2/2 When Jeroboam the son of Nebat heard3—and he was in Egypt where he had fled from Solomon the king—Jeroboam returned from Egypt.4 3/ They had sent and called him, and Jeroboam and all Israel came and said5 to Rehoboam, 4/ “Your father made our yoke harsh. Now,6 therefore, lighten the harsh service inflicted by your fath

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Rehoboam’s First Three Years of Blessing (11:5–23)

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pp. 157-168

Rehoboam lived in Jerusalem, and he built cities for defense in Judah. 6/ He built Bethlehem, Etam, Tekoa, 7/ Beth-zur, Soco, Adullam, 8/ Gath, Mareshah, Ziph, 9/ Adoraim, Lachish, Azekah, 10/ Zorah, Aijalon, and Hebron, which are fortified cities in Judah and in Benjamin. 11/ He strengthened the fortresses and put commanders in them and storehouses for food, oil, and wine. ...

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The Invasion of Shishak; The Death of Rehoboam (12:1–16)

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pp. 169-181

When the kingdom of Rehoboam was established1 and it was strong, he forsook the law2 of Yahweh, and all Israel with him. 2/ In the fifth year of King Rehoboam, Shishak3 the king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, for they had acted unfaithfully toward Yahweh 3/ with twelve hundred4 chariots and sixty thousand cavalry. And the troops who came with him from ...

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The Reign of Abijah 13:1–23a (14:1a)

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pp. 182-197

In the eighteenth year of King Jeroboam, Abijah became king over Judah. 2/ Three1 years he reigned in Jerusalem, and the name of his mother was Micaiah2 the daughter of Uriel3 from Gibeah.4 There was war between Abijah and Jeroboam.5 3/ Abijah engaged in the battle with an army6 of mighty warriors, four hundred7 thousand...

The Reign of Asa (13:23b (14:1b)–16:14)

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The Piety and Successes of Asa; His Defeat of Zerah the Cushite 13:23b (14:1b)–14:14 (15)

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pp. 198-211

b)/ In his days1 the land2 was quiet for ten3 years. 14:1 (2)/ Asa4 did what was good and upright in the eyes of Yahweh his God. 2 (3)/ He removed the foreign altars and the high places, and he broke in pieces the pillars and hewed down the asherim. 3 (4)/ He commanded Judah to seek Yahweh the God o...

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The Admonition of Azariah, Followed by a Second Reform and a Covenant (15:1–19)

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pp. 212-224

As for Azariah the son of Oded, the spirit of God came upon him. 2/ He went out before Asa and said to him, “Listen to me, Asa and all Judah and Benjamin. Yahweh will be with you if you are with him.1 If you seek him, he will let himself be found2 by you. If you abandon him, he will abandon you. 3/ For many...

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Asa’s Alliance with Baasha, Rebuke by Hanani, Sickness and Death (16:1–14)

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pp. 225-234

In the thirty-sixth1 year of the reign of Asa, Baasha the king of Israel went up against Judah and built Ramah2 so as not to allow anyone to go out or come in for Asa the king of Judah. 2/ Asa took out silver and gold from the treasuries of the house of Yahweh and the king’s house and sent them to Ben-hadad ...

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Early Successes of Jehoshaphat (17:1–19)

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pp. 235-245

Jehoshaphat his son reigned in his [Asa’s] stead. He strengthened himself over Israel. 2/ He put an armed force in all the fortified cities of Judah and put garrisons in the land of Judah1 and in the cities of Ephraim that his father Asa had captured. 3/ Yahweh was with Jehoshaphat because he walked in the earlier ways...

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The War of Ahab and Jehoshaphat at Ramoth-Gilead (18:1–19:3)

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pp. 246-260

Although Jehoshaphat had riches and honor in abundance, he allied himself by marriage to Ahab.1 2/ After some years he went down to Ahab at Samaria, and Ahab butchered for him and the troops who were with him sheep and cattle in abundance. He also incited him to go up2 to Ramoth-gilead. Ahab the king of ...

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Jehoshaphat’s Judicial Reform (19:4–11)

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pp. 261-268

Jehoshaphat resided in Jerusalem, but he again went out1 among the people from Beersheba to the hill country of Ephraim and brought them back to Yahweh the God of their ancestors. 5/ He appointed judges in the land, in all the fortified cities of Judah, city by c...

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Jehoshaphat’s War against an Eastern Coalition; His Alliance with Ahaziah and His Death (20:1–37)

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pp. 269-287

Some time afterwards the Moabites and the Ammonites, together with some of the Meunim,1 came against Jehoshaphat for war. 2/ Messengers2 came and told Jehoshaphat, “A great multitude is coming against you from across the sea, from Edom.3 They are already at Hazazontamar—that is, En-gedi.” 3/ Jehoshaphat was afraid and set his...

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The Reign of Jehoram (21:1–20)

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pp. 288-300

Jehoshaphat slept with his fathers, and he was buried with his fathers1 in the city of David. Jehoram his son reigned in his stead. 2/ Jehoram2 had brothers,3 the sons of Jehoshaphat: Azariah, Jehiel, Zechariah, Azariah,4 Michael, and Shephatiah; all these were sons of Jehoshaphat king of Israel.5 3/ Their father...

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The Reign of Ahaziah (22:1–9)

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pp. 301-307

The inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah his youngest son king in his place, for the band that came with the Arabs to the camp1 had killed all the older2 sons. And Ahaziah the son of Jehoram reigned as king in Judah. 2/ Twenty-two years old3 was Ahaziah when he became...

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The Execution of Athaliah and the Installation of Joash as King (22:10–23:21)

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pp. 308-321

When Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw1 that her son was dead, she rose2 and destroyed3 all the heirs4 of the kingdom belonging to the house of Judah. 11/ But Jehoshabeath5 the daughter of the king6 took Joash the son of Ahaziah and stole him from the midst of the sons of the king who were about to be killed, and she put him and his wet nurse in ...

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The Two Periods in the Reign of Joash (24:1–27)

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pp. 322-340

Joash was seven years old when he became king, and he reigned for forty years in Jerusalem. The name of his mother was Zibiah from Beer-sheba. 2/ He did what was right in the eyes of Yahweh all the days of1 Jehoiada the priest. 3/ Jehoiada procured for him two wives, and he fathered sons and daughters. 4/ Sometime later Joash had...

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The Two Periods in the Reign of Amaziah (25:1–26:2)

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pp. 341-356

Jehoshaphat resided in Jerusalem, but he again went out1 among the people from Beersheba to the hill country of Ephraim and brought them back to Yahweh the God of their ancestors. 5/ He appointed judges in the land, in all the fortified cities of Judah, city by city. 6/ He said to the judges, “Look how ...

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The Two Periods in the Reign of Uzziah (26:3–23)

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pp. 357-373

Uzziah was sixteen years old when he became king, and he ruled fifty-two years in Jerusalem. The name of his mother was Jecoliah1 from Jerusalem. 4/ He did that which was right in the sight of Yahweh, according to all that Amaziah his father had done. 5/ He determined to seek God2 in the days of Zechariah, who instructed him in the fear3 of God. As long as...

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The Reign of Jotham (27:1–9)

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pp. 374-379

Jotham1 was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he ruled sixteen years in Jerusalem. The name of his mother was Jerushah daughter of Zadok. 2/ He did that which was right in the sight of Yahweh according to all that Uzziah3 his father had done.4 Only he did not enter5 the temple of Yahweh, bu...

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The Reign of Ahaz (28:1–27)

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pp. 380-398

Ahaz was twenty1 years old when he became king, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem. He did not do that which was right in the eyes of Yahweh2 like David his father. 2/ He walked in the ways of the kings of Israel, and also made cast images for the Baals. 3/ He made offerings in the valley of the son of Hinnom and made hi...

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Purification of the Temple and Restoration of the Cult (29:1–36)

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pp. 399-416

Hezekiah began to reign when he was twenty-five years1 old, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. The name of his mother was Abijah2 the daughter of Zechariah. 2/ He did what was right in the eyes of Yahweh according to everything that David his father had done. 3/ He—in the first year of his reign in the first month3—opened the doors of the house of Yahweh and repaired the...

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The Passover of Hezekiah (30:1–27)

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pp. 417-432

Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and also wrote letters to Ephraim and Manasseh to come to the house of Yahweh in Jerusalem to carry out a Passover for Yahweh the God of Israel. 2/ The king, his officials, and all the assembly had taken counsel in Jerusalem to carry out the Passover in the second month. 3/ For they were not able to do it1 at that...

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The Completion of Hezekiah’s Cultic Reforms; Provisions for Collecting and Distributing Contributions to the Priests and Levites (31:1–21)

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pp. 433-445

When they had finished all this, all Israel that was present went out to the cities of Judah and they shattered the standing stones, ground down the asherim,1 and tore down the high places and the altars from all2 Judah and Benjamin and in Ephraim and Manasseh until they had destroyed them all. Then all the Israelites3 returned, each ...

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Hezekiah Survives the Attack by Sennacherib; Hezekiah’s Final Years and His Death (32:1–33)

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pp. 446-460

After these deeds and these acts of faithfulness,1 Sennacherib the king of Assyria came and invaded Judah and encamped against the fortified cities, and he intended to conquer them for himself. 2/ When Hezekiah saw that Sennacherib had invaded, and that his face was set for war against Jerusalem, 3/ he took counsel with his officials and...

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The Reign of Manasseh (33:1–20)

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p. 461

Manasseh was twelve years old when he became king, and he reigned fifty-five1 years in Jerusalem. He did that which was evil in the eyes of Yahweh according to the abominable practices2 of the nations whom Yahweh had dispossessed before the Israelites. 3/ He rebuilt3 the high places that Hezekiah his father had torn down;4 he erected altars5 for the Baals and made sacred poles6and wors...

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The Reign of Amon (33:21–25)

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pp. 461-478

Manasseh was twelve years old when he became king, and he reigned fifty-five1 years in Jerusalem. 2/ He did that which was evil in the eyes of Yahweh according to the abominable practices2 of the nations whom Yahweh had dispossessed before the Israelites. 3/ He rebuilt3 the high places that Hezekiah his father had torn down;4 he erected altars5 for the Baals...

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Josiah’s Reforms and the Discovery of the Book of the Torah (34:1–33)

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pp. 479-498

Josiah was eight years old when he became king, and he ruled thirty-one years in Jerusalem. 2/ He did what was right in the eyes of Yahweh and walked in the ways of David his ancestor; he did not turn aside to the right or to the left. 3/ In the eighth year1 of his reign, while he was still a youth, he began to seek the...

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The Passover of Josiah and the Death of Josiah (35:1–27)

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pp. 499-519

Josiah kept a Passover1 in Jerusalem2 for Yahweh;3 he slaughtered4 the Passover lamb on the fourteenth5 of the first month. 2/ He appointed the priests to their offices and strengthened them for the service6 of the house of Yahweh. 3/ He said to the Levites who instructed7 all Israel8 and who were holy9 to Yahweh, “Since the holy ark10 has been brought11 into the house ...

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The Last Kings of Judah (Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah) and the Rise of Cyrus (36:1–23)

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pp. 520-538

The people of the land2 took Jehoahaz3 the son of Josiah, and they anointed him4 and made him king instead of his father.5 2/ Joahaz6 was twenty-three years old7 when he became king,8 and he reigned for three months9 in Jerusalem.10 3/ The king of Egypt removed him from being king11 in Jerusalem.12 He taxed the land13 one hundred ...

Indexes

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pp. 539-548


E-ISBN-13: 9781506421094
E-ISBN-10: 1506421091
Print-ISBN-13: 9780800661014
Print-ISBN-10: 080066101X

Page Count: 592
Publication Year: 2012

Series Title: Hermeneia: A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible
See more Books in this Series

OCLC Number: 966766846
MUSE Marc Record: Download for 2 Chronicles