Front Cover, Flaps

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Editorial board, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. ii-iv

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About the Author

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p. vi

Ralph W. Klein is Christ Seminary-Seminex Professor of Old Testament at the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago. His books include Textual Criticism of the Old Testament (1974), Israel in Exile (1979), 1 Samuel (WBC, 1983), and Ezekiel: The Prophet...

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Foreword

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pp. ix-x

The name Hermeneia has been chosen as the title of the commentary series to which this volume belongs. The word Hermeneia has a rich background in the history of biblical interpretation as a term used in the ancient Greek-speaking world for the detailed, systematic exposition of a scriptural work It is hoped that the series, like its name, will carry forward this old and venerable tradition. A second, entirely practical reason for selecting the name lies in the desire to avoid a long descriptive ...

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Preface

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pp. xi-xii

A little more than twenty-six years ago I received a letter from Frank Cross inviting me to write the Hermeneia commentary on Chronicles. My doctoral dissertation at Harvard had dealt with the text-critical implications of 1 Esdras, a translation of2 Chronicles 35-36, Ezra 1-10, and Nehemiah 8 from the canon, in addition to narrative materials in 1 Esdras, and I had written a Forschungsbericht on Ezra and Nehemiah for the G. Ernest Wright memorial volume, Magnalia Dei (1976). Still that letter came as a great surprise ...

Reference Codes

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pp. xiii-xxii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-50

..."The Book of the Events of the Days of the Kings of Judah."6 These source citations are renamed "The Book of the Kings ofJudah and Israel," or "The Book of the Kings oflsrael and Judah," in Chronicles.7 The reference to the kings of Israel and Judah may have been dropped from "The Book of the Events of the Days" in the title of Chronicles since it would not apply to ...

Commentary

Genealogies (1:1–9:44)

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p. 53

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1

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pp. 53-81

The opening unit of Chronicles consists of genealogical information, drawn entirely from the book of Genesis and covering the period from Adam to the birth of the twelve sons of Israel (see the genealogical chart "Descendants from Adam"). It may be outlined as follows: I. 1:1-4. A linear genealogy1 from Adam to Shem, Ham, andJapheth, the sons of Noah, based on Gen 5:1- 32....

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2

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pp. 82-108

The genealogy of the tribe of Judah extends from 1 Chr 2:3 through 4:23 and may be outlined as follows (see the genealogical chart "Descendants of Judah"). 1 I. 2:3-8. Genealogy from the patriarch Judah himself, including the three children born to him by Bath-shua (Er, Onan, and Shelah) and the two children born to him by Tamar (Perez and Zerah). Verse 5 records two sons born to Perez, and vv. 6-8 record five sons of Zerah, two grandsons, and a great-grandson. For...

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3

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pp. 109-123

This chapter contains a genealogy of the descendants of David, beginning with David's own children, continuing with his descendants after Solomon who were the kings of Judah, and finishing with the descendants of jehoiachin, the second last king of Judah, for eight more generationn (see the genealogical chart "Descendants of David"). 1 Only the last section, section 4, is without a comprehensive biblical paralle1. 2 This whole chapter forms part II.H in the genealogy of Judah...

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4

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pp. 124-154

In 4:1-23 the Chronicler completes the genealogy of Judah that was begun in 2:3. The genealogy of Hur, the son of Caleb and Ephrathah, was interrupted by the genealogy of the descendants of David in chap. 3. Part II' of the genealogy of Judah is vv. 1-20 and part III is difficult to...

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5

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pp. 155-171

After providing an expansive genealogy for the preeminent tribe Judah (1 Chr 2:3-4:23) and a much shorter genealogy for the closely related tribe of Simeon, whose territory was eventually absorbed into Judah (4:24-43), the Chronicler next turns to genealogical materials on Reuben, Gad, and the (eastern) half of Manasseh in Transjordan. He proceeds in a south-tonorth direction for these Transjordanian...

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6

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pp. 172-213

ote: The Hebrew Bible includes the genealogy of the immediate descendants of Levi and the high priests from Aaron to Jehozadak (the high priests) in chap. 5, but English versions put this material at the beginning of chap. 6. Chapter 6:1 in Hebrew is 6:16 in English versions. Consequently, in our discussion of 5:27-6:66 (6:1- 81), there will always be a difference of fifteen verses between the Hebrew and the English verse references. ...

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7

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pp. 214-241

These six sections can be divided into three parts. Section A is part of the military census list detected already in 5:23-24 (Issachar, Benjamin, and Asher); section B consists of Naphtali, a tribe descended from Bilhah, the concubine supplied to J acob by Rachel, which logically should also include Dan;2 and section C, which provides genealogical information for the descendants of the two tribes stemming from Joseph (Manasseh and...

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8

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pp. 242-258

In the final form of Chronicles this complex genealogy of Benjamin forms an inclusio with the complex genealogy of Judah (1 Chr 2:3-4:23) around the tribal genealogies in chaps. 2-8, with the complex genealogy of Levi and the Levitical cities located approximately in the center of these genealogies (5:27-6:66 [6:1-81]). The Chronicler gives Judah and r~amin prominence because of their past loyalty to David and the temple ....

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9

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pp. 259-281

The final chapter in the genealogical introduction consists primarily of a list of people who lived inJerusalem. 1 The majority of the chapter-27 of 44 verses-repeats materials that also appear elsewhere in the Bible. Verses 2-17 are parallel to Neh 11:3-19, while vv. 34, 35-38, and 39-44 repeat nearly verbatim 1 Chr 8:28, 29-32, and 33- 40. The relationship between 8:28-40 and 9:34-44 has already been...

The Reign of David (10:1–29:30)

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10

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pp. 282-291

The Chronicler begins the narrative portion of his work by including an account of Saul's death based on 1 Samuel 31. 1 This narrative may be outlined as follows: I. 10:1-7. Death of Saul and his house (1 Sam 31:1-7) II. 10:8-12. Benevolent acts of the people ofjabeshgilead, introduced by a time notice...

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11

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pp. 292-310

The vast majority of this material is taken from 2 Samuel but with significant omissions, rearrangements, and additions. There are numerous textual prob- !ems with many of the names and with the numbers conventionally translated as "three" or "thirty." All of 2 Samuel 1-4 is missing from Chronicles, with its tales of the rival kingship of Ishbaal, the son of Saul, and ...

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12

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pp. 311-326

Several earlier commentators judged vv. 1-23 (22) to be secondary or, as in the case of Noth, 1 tertiary, that is, subsequent to the secondary addition of vv. 24-41 (23- 40). These commentators were persuaded that vv. 1-23 (1-22) interrupted the transition between 11:10-47 (the list of military heroes who joined Israel in making David king at Hebron) and 12:24-41 (23-40) (the tribal muster at Hebron that came to make him king). The secondary verses, in their opinion, were out of order since they harked back to a time before the...

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13

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pp. 327-336

David consulted with the commanders of the thousands and the hundreds: Whereas the focus of the story about the movement of the ark to Jerusalem in the Deuteronomistic History is on the efforts of David, the journey of the ark in Chronicles is the work of all Israel.6 David sought the support of his military officers, who had gathered around him at Hebron/ as....

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14

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pp. 337-344

Three units in this chapter (the recognition of David by Hiram king ofTyre, vv. 1-2; the list of David's children born in Jerusalem, vv. 3-7; and his twofold defeat of the Philistines, vv. 8-17) are the Chronicler's reediting of three units from 2 Samuel 5 (vv. 11-12, 13-16, and 17- 25). The biggest difference between the Chronicler's text and that of his Vorlage is that the Chronicler has chosen to place these events after David's first (failed) attempt to bring the ark to Jerusalem rather than before it. Historically, David would have had ...

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15

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pp. 345-358

To understand the structure of this unit we must survey the content of chaps. 15 and 16. The first twentyfour verses of chap. 15, without a parallel in the Deuteronomistic History, describe various kinds of preparations David made to bring the ark from the house of Obed-edom to Jerusalem, and the narration in 15:25-16:3, based on 2 Sam 6:12-19a, describes the actual procession of the ark. In 1 Chr 16:4-7 and 37-42, without parallels in previous biblica...

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16

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pp. 359-370

The Chronicler added his own new materials in 16:4-7 and 37-42, dealing in the first instance with the appointment of cultic officials to serve in the presence of the ark (vv. 4-7), 1 and in the second case with regularizing these appointments for the ark (vv. 37-38) and with making similar appointments for the sanctuary of the tabernacle ...

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17

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pp. 371-385

Except for the omission of2 Sam 7:1b and 7:14b, the Chronicler presents a text that is virtually identical in length and content with his Vorlage, although he has introduced a number of small changes, and textual variants have arisen in both Samuel and Chronicles (see textual note 1 for a list of readings where Chronicles is based on a Sam text other than MT). This closeness to the Vorlage has important...

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18

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pp. 386-397

Between 1 Chronicles 17 (/ / 2 Samuel 7), containing the oracle of Nathan about the temple and the Davidic dynasty and David's subsequent prayer, and 1 Chronicles 21 (/ / 2 Samuel 24), reporting David's purchase of the threshing floor of Ornan the J ebusite as the location of the future temple, the Chronicler inserted materials from 2 Samuel dealing with David's wars. 1 Chr 18:1-17 is parallel to 2 Sam 8:1-18; 1 Chr 19:1-20:3 is parallel to 2 Sam 10:1-ll:1a, 12:26, 30, 31; and...

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19

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pp. 398-408

The point of the war stories in 1 Chr 19:1-20:3 ( cf. also chap. 18) is that God is thereby rewarding David for his faithfulness, especially in bringing the ark to Jerusalem, and is keeping his promise to subdue all of David's enemies (17: 10). The Chronicler does not include the materials from 2 Samuel 9, David's kindness to Mephibosheth, the lame son of Jonathan and grandson of Saul, since here and elsewhere he does not comment on David's relationship to Saul, ...

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20

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pp. 409-413

The Chronicler concludes his account of David's wars by including three anecdotes found at 2 Sam 21:18-22, 1 in which Israelite heroes defeated Philistine heroes in one-to-one combat. These incidents should probably be related historically to David's Philistine wars recounted in 2 Sam 5:18-25//1 Chr 14:8-16. Each of these anecdotes is structured in a similar way: • There wa war again with the Philistines • An Israelite hero kills a Philistine hero Characteristics of the Philistine hero and/ or his relationship to the Rapha Within this structure there is some ...

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21

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pp. 414-429

This passage is parallel to 2 Sam 24:1-25, though the Chronicler has considerably changed the focus of that passage and added an important concluding paragraph of his own (1 Chr 21:26b-22:1). 1 1n addition, the discovery of 4QSam", a copy of 2 Sam 24:16-20, has shown that many of the differences between the two accounts are due to an alternate text of Samuel that was available to the Chronicler as his Vorlage. 2 This is the last time that the Chronicler quotes from the books of Samuel, and we need to review what he has selected for ...

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22

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pp. 430-442

From here to the end of 1 Chronicles, there is no canonical Vorlage on which the Chronicler depends, though he clearly used the materials describing the transition from Moses to Joshua in Deuteronomy 31 and Joshua 1 in constructing the speeches in 1 Chronicles 22 and 28, and he also utilized 1 Kgs 5:17-19 (3-5) as well as other materials from the Deuteronomistic History. Between the speeches of David in chaps. 22 and 28-29 he placed extensive materials on...

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23

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pp. 443-459

The structure of chaps. 23-271 in their present form is as follows: III. 23:3-6a. Census of Levites IV. 23:6b-24. List of Levites in their divisions V. 23:25-32. Description of Levites' duties Chapter 24 Chapter 23 1. 23:1. Introduction to the rest of 1 Chronicles, including both the lists of Lev ites, priests, and secular officials in chaps. 23- 27 and the book's final two chapters, which contain speeches and pr-ayers of...

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24

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pp. 460-472

Four priestly families are attested already in the list of returnees from Babylon: Jedaiah, Immer (=A mariah), Pashhur, and Harim (Ezra 2:36-39/ / Neh 7:39-42);7 and three of these,Jedaiah, Immer/ Amariah, and Harim, also appear in both lists of priests in Nehemiah 12 and as priestly courses #2, #16, and #3, respectively, in 1 Chronicles 24.8 The fourth priestly family, Pashhur, which has the largest number of descendants...

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25

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pp. 473-484

This chapter consists of a genealogical listing of twenty-four sons of Asaph, Heman, andjeduthun, the heads of the families of singers (vv. 1-6), and an account of how these sons were arranged by casting lots into twenty-four divisions or duty groups (vv. 7-31). Curtis and Madsen, 275, suggest that the order of chaps. 23-25 may have been influenced by the duties of the three groups described: the Levites to prepare the sacrifices (chap. 23), the priests to make the...

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26

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pp. 485-497

The data on Obed-edom (vv. 4-8) interrupt in a secondary fashion the presentation of Meshelemiah (vv. 1- 3, 9) and, unlike Meshelemiah and Hosah (vv. 10-11), Obed-edom is not linked genealogically to the Levites. The numbers for Obed-edom (sixty-two) are also out of proportion with those of Meshelemiah (eighteen) and Hosah (thirteen). The uncertain status of Obed-edom appears in chaps. 15-16, where the Chronicler listed him both as a singer and as a gatekeeper. 2 Verses...

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27

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pp. 498-514

This chapter contains four lists dealing with the secular administration of the land at the time of David and may be outlined as follows: I. 27:1-15. Twelve military divisions, of twenty-four thousand each, that served on a monthly basis, under the leadership of one of the military heroes associated with David (material derived from 11:10- 31; see below). II. 27:16-24. Chief officers of the tribes oflsrael. The listing of the tribes begins with the sons of Leah in their birth order, with the omission...

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28

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pp. 515-528

After the long excursus in chaps. 23-27 in which David appointed priests, Levites, gatekeepers, and other officials, the Chronicler provides the final speeches of David before his death in chaps. 28-29. While Curtis and Madsen, 296, detected some correlations between David's speech at the completion of his temple preparations in 29:10-19 and Solomon's prayer at the dedication of the temple ( 1 Kgs 8:22-53), it is striking...

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29

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pp. 529-546

This is an expanded and highly revised version of 1 Kgs 2:10-12 in which the Chronicler uses for v. 27 only one verse from the three-verse summary of David's reign in 1 Kings (2:11; 2:10 and 2:12 are not directly quoted). We might have expected this paragraph to come before the enthronement of Solomon, but the Chronicler apparently wanted to link ...

Index

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pp. 547-560

Back cover, Flaps, Spine

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