Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-xiv

Acknowledgments

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p. xv

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Introduction

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pp. xvii-xviii

Are you white? (Or, do you have a friend who is?) If so, how do you know? Is race real-or is it constructed, an "as-if" concept, something we all agree to bestow on each other? Is it a relational concept, existing only in binary...

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PART I: How Whites See Themselves

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pp. 1-2

If any theme is characteristic of contemporary thought in the social sciences and in cultural studies, it is "perspectivalism"-the idea that one's viewpoint matters. Indeed, every chapter in this book can...

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1 The End of the Great White Male

JOHN R. GRAHAM

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pp. 3-5

Five centuries ago, the foundations of the world were shaken. So-called immutable truths toppled forever as man was replaced by the sun as the center of our universe. Equally wrenching is the current shattering...

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2 White Racial Formation: Into the Twenty-First Century

CHARLES A. GALLAGHER

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pp. 6-11

Whiteness is in a state of change. One only need browse book stands or news racks for examples of how the idea of whiteness is being interpreted, defined, reinterpreted, and contested by popular...

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3 The Skin We're In

CHRISTOPHER WILLS

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pp. 12-15

Melanin is in the news these days. There's a pseudoscientific idea floating around that says that if you have lots of melanin-the pigment that colors your skin and hair and the irises of...

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4 The Way of the WASP

RICHARD BROOKHISER

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pp. 16-23

When Benjamin Franklin decided to improve his own character, he drew up the list of virtues which so annoyed...

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5 Hiring Quotas for White Males Only

ERIC FONER

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pp. 24-26

Thirty-two years ago, I graduated from Columbia College. My class of 700 was all-male and virtually all-white. Most of us were young men of ability, yet had we been forced to compete for admission...

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6 Innocence and Affirmative Action

THOMAS ROSS

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pp. 27-32

When we create arguments, when we act as rhetoricians, we reveal ourselves by the words and ideas we choose to employ. Verbal structures that are used widely and persistently are especially worth...

7 Doing the White Male Kvetch (A Pale Imitation of a Rag)

CALVIN TRILLIN

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p. 33

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8 Growing Up White in America?

BONNIE KAE GROVER

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pp. 34-35

Growing up white in America. How do you do that? I mean, lots of folks grow up Italian in America, lots more grow up capitalist in America, and legions of us have grown up middle class, working class, poor, or...

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9 Growing Up (What) in America?

JERALD N. MARRS

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pp. 36-37

Do you recognize these lyrics? Can you hum them to yourself and include the next verse about Mr. Cold Miser? Are these words part of your culture? These are the words that first triggered a...

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10 White Images of Black Slaves (Is What We See in Others Sometimes a Reflection of What We Find in Ourselves?)

GEORGE FREDRICKSON

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pp. 38-45

In his provocative study of American slavery, Stanley Elkins provides a vivid description of the black slave as he was usually represented in antebellum...

Synopses of Other Important Works

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p. 46

From the Editors: Issues and Comments

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pp. 46-47

Suggested Readings

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p. 47

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PART II: How Whites See Others

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p. 50

Can one see, or even understand the idea of, another race without juxtaposing it immediately against oneself and...

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11 The White Race Is Shrinking: Perceptions of Race in Canada and Some Speculations on the Political Economy of Race Classification

DOUG DANIELS

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pp. 51-54

For many years I have been teaching a sociology class on 'Minorities and Ethnic Group Relations' at the University of Regina, Canada, where the ethnic make-up of the student body is quite...

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12 Ignoble Savages

DINESH D'SOUZA

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pp. 55-65

For the Europeans who first voyaged abroad, much of the rest of the world came as a shock for which they were poorly prepared. Early modern accounts, such as Richard Hakluyt's sixteenth century...

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13 Darkness Made Visible: law, Metaphor, and the Racial Self

D. MARVIN JONES

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pp. 66-78

In August 1862, Abraham Lincoln called a number of "Negro" leaders to the White House. Laboring under harsh racial assumptions, which conflicted with the moral eloquence to come at Gettysburg, Lincoln told his assembled audience, "You and we are different races .... This physical difference is a great disadvantage to us both, as I think your race...

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14 Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the literary Imagination

TONI MORRISON

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pp. 79-84

They have been floating, Pym and Peters and the native, Nu-Nu, on a warm, milk-white sea under a "white ashy shower." The black man dies, and the boat rushes on through the white curtain behind which a white giant rises up. After that, there is nothing. There is no more narrative. Instead there is a scholarly note, explanation, and an anxious...

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15 Transparently White Subjective Decisionmaking: Fashioning a legal Remedy

BARBARA J. FLAGG

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pp. 85-88

Goodson, Badwin & Indiff is a major accounting firm employing more than five hundred persons nationwide. Among its twenty black accountants is Yvonne Taylor, who at the time this story begins was thirty-one years old and poised to become the first black regional supervisor in the firm's history. Yvonne attended Princeton...

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16 The Rhetorical Tapestry of Race

THOMAS ROSS

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pp. 89-97

For many, the rhetoric supporting the institution of slavery was constructed simply. Once one got past establishing the nonhuman nature of blacks, the rest was easy. If whites had any moral obligation in the matter, it was to use blacks to further the interests of society, a society from which the black was excluded. The horrific...

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17 Imposition

RICHARD DELGADO, JEAN STEFANCIC

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pp. 98-105

Society generally deploys terms of imposition at key moments in the history of a reform effort, such as blacks' struggle for equal opportunity, or women's campaign for reproductive rights. Before reaching that point, society tolerates or even supports the new movement. We march, link arms, and sing with the newcomers, identifying with...

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18 Racial Reflections: Dialogues in the Direction of liberation

DERRICK A. BELL, TRACY HIGGINS, SUNG-HEE SUH

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pp. 106-111

Over time, beliefs in white dominance, reinforced by policies subordinating black interests to those of whites, have led to an unrecognized, but no less viable, property right in whiteness. In challenging the legality of racial segregation in the late nineteenth century, the plaintiff in Plessy v. Ferguson recognized, and the Court acknowledged, a property right...

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19 The Tower of Babel

ELEANOR MARIE BROWN

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pp. 112-116

Social scientists have identified a number of features that characterize contemporary white attitudes toward blacks. First, traditional stereotypes and blatant discrimination are no longer common. Most whites, regardless of their political orientation, reject these traditional forms of discrimination. This is particularly true of white liberals...

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20 The Quest for Freedom in the Post-Brown South: Desegregation and White Self-Interest

DAVISON M. DOUGLAS

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pp. 117-124

In their response to the civil rights movement of the 1960s, moderate southern communities differed from their recalcitrant counterparts in at least one significant aspect. These communities understood that white self-interest demanded a certain degree of accommodation to integration demands. Thus, in many moderate southern cities, white...

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21 "Soulmaning": Using Race for Political and Economic Gain

LUTHER WRIGHT JR.

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pp. 125-127

Hispanic and black organizations in Boston criticized the city government for allowing the Malones to work for ten years before questioning their racial identity. These organizations called for a full investigation of the Malones' case and for prompt investigation of other allegations of racial fraud. One Boston official claimed that as many as sixty other firefighters had engaged in racial fraud, but other officials estimated that the actual...

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22 Dysconscious Racism: Ideology, Identity, and Miseducation

JOYCE E. KING

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pp. 128-132

Most of the students begin my teacher education courses with limited knowledge and distorted understanding of societal inequity. Not only are they often unaware of their own ideological perspectives, most are also unaware of how their own subjective identities reflect an uncritical identification with the existing social order. Moreover, they have...

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Synopses of Other Important Works

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pp. 133-134

Supremacists also see the world in terms of power and legitimate authority. In our society, one sees that white people hold most positions of power. Klansmen infer that this is because whites (and men) are superior in nature and that this superiority grants them the power of command. As our economy worsens and immigration increases...

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From the Editors: Issues and Comments

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pp. 134-135

Is the white race endangered? Beleaguered? In disfavor? "Imposed upon," as Delgado and Stefancic put it? Is this sense of imposition or beleaguerment real or imagined? Do whites sometimes feign sympathy for the struggles of nonwhite groups in order to get government off their backs, as Davison Douglas reports in his study of Southern desegregation? Some whites subscribe...

Suggested Readings

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p. 135

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PART III: Whiteness: History's Role

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pp. 137-138

Our current attitudes toward race and our own racial selves did not spring up out of a vacuum. Rather, they have long cultural antecedents. In this part, several writers, most of them well-known...

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23 Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism

REGINALD HORSMAN

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pp. 139-144

By 1850 American expansion was viewed in the United States less as a victory for the principles of free democratic republicanism than as evidence of the innate superiority of the American Anglo-Saxon branch...

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24 The Invention of Race: Rereading White Over Black

JAMES CAMPBELL, JAMES OAKES

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pp. 145-151

When Winthrop Jordan's White Over Black was published in 1968, big reviews came out right away, followed by big prizes. Everyone noticed; everyone raved. Yet for all its monumental proportions, the boo...

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25 "Only the Law Would Rule between Us": Antimiscegenation, the Moral Economy of Dependency, and the Debate over Rights after the Civil War

EMILY FIELD VAN TASSEL

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pp. 152-156

Gender and race were closely connected in the ideology of the white 30uth; they were mutually defining. Consider legal prohibitions on interracial marriage, for example. At the core of the early debate were several closely linked questions...

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26 The Antidemocratic Power of Whiteness

KATHLEEN NEAL CLEAVER

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pp. 157-163

Like the formally neutral concept of "civil rights," "race" usually makes one think of blacks. To link the idea of race with the social construct of whiteness is uncommon. As a rule, white Americans no longer see race in relation to their own identity, and genuinely believe that racism poses a problem for...

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27 Who's Black, Who's White, and Who Cares

LUTHER WRIGHT JR.

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pp. 164-169

Strict racial classification rules were at the very core of maintaining the institution of slavery and the system of white dominance. One problem with the existence of indentured servants and...

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28 Images of the Outsider in American Law and Culture

RICHARD DELGADO, JEAN STEFANCIC

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pp. 170-178

Several museums have featured displays of racial memorabilia from the past.1 Each of these collections depicts a shocking parade of Sambos, mammies, coons, uncles-bestial or happy-go-lucky, watermelon-eating...

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29 Back to the Future with The Bell Curve: Jim Crow, Slavery, and G

JACQUELINE JONES

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pp. 179-185

According to Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, we live in an age and a country untainted by history, an age that springs full blown from g, or the "general intelligence" of the citizens who live...

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30 The Genetic Tie

DOROTHY E. ROBERTS

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pp. 186-189

The genetic tie's prominence in defining personal identity arose in a racial caste system that preserved white supremacy through a rule of racial purity. In America, perhaps the most socially significant...

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Synopses of Other Important Works

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pp. 190-191

In his acclaimed book Towards the Abolition of Whiteness, Professor David R. Roediger of the University of Minnesota analyzes where white, working-class immigrants fit into the picture. Like that of the other authors summarized in this note, Roediger's thesis is subtle and not easily paraphrased. But it includes the idea that society (and the courts) constructed whiteness...

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From the Editors: Issues and Comments

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p. 192

Do you agree with the authors in this part of the book that the white race did not exist until it was invented? Surely there were people who look like the Anglo-Americans of today, but were they conscious of themselves as a group or race? If so, who did the inventing, and why? What components went into the new...

Suggested Readings

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p. 192

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PART IV: Whiteness: Law's Role

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pp. 193-194

Everyone knows that the legal system has played a part in enforcing racial separation (e.g., in schooling) and also, from time to time, in requiring racial fairness. But the law played a role in something that is prior to that-namely, in constructing racial categories in the first place. Does law, as some writers believe, have...

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31 White Law and Lawyers: The Case of Surrogate Motherhood

PETER HALEWOOD

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pp. 195-198

Much has been written on surrogate motherhood as an application of biotechnology which challenges conventional understandings of equality and the family. Surrogacy also challenges conventional notions of embodiment. Indeed, the law has responded to surrogacy by bracketing off the surrogate mother's embodiment-her factual experience of pregnancy-from the legal facts relevant to...

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32 Social Science and Segregation before Brown

HERBERT HOVENKAMP

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pp. 199-209

No historical legal policy can be evaluated without an understanding of the framework in which the policymakers viewed the world. If members of a society believe a particular scientific theory-for example, that interracial sex produces degenerate children-then they may be willing to sacrifice a great deal to avoid the consequences of interracial marriages. If they later discover that interracial...

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33 Mexican-Americans and Whiteness

GEORGE A. MARTINEZ

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pp. 210-213

During slavery, the racial divide between black and white became a line of protection from the threat of commodification: whiteness protected one against being an object of property. Even after slavery ended, the status of being white continued to be a valuable asset, carrying with it a set of assumptions...

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34 Race and the Core Curriculum in Legal Education

FRANCES LEE ANSLEY

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pp. 214-219

It hardly needs saying that the Constitution represents contested and bloody ground. The celebration of the Constitution's bicentennial brought on a great debate about race and the Constitution. No doubt scholars of differing persuasions would have raised the race question during the bicentennial in any event, but a highly publicized...

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35 The Transparency Phenomenon, Race-Neutral Decisionmaking, and Discriminatory Intent

BARBARA J. FLAGG

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pp. 220-226

In this society, the white person has an everyday option not to think of herself in racial terms at all. In fact, whites appear to pursue that option so habitually that it may be a defining characteristic of whiteness: to be white is not to think about it.1 I label the tendency for whiteness to vanish from whites' self-perception the transparency...

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36 Toward a Black Legal Scholarship: Race and Original Understandings

JEROME McCRISTAL CULP JR.

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pp. 227-230

Initially, the law largely treated black slaves as non-beings.1 Eventually, the law evolved into a paternalistic system that viewed blacks as lesser beings whom white masters and overseers needed to protect from their own ignorant, sloven, and evil nature. Finally, slave law provided for legal...

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37 Identity Notes, Part One: Playing in the Light

ADRIENNE D. DAVIS

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pp. 231-238

"What parts do the invention and development of whiteness play in the construction of what is loosely described as 'American' " ?1 And how does binarism affect law and legal...

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38 The Constitutional Ghetto

ROBERT L. HAYMAN JR., NANCY LEVIT

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pp. 239-247

Third, desegregation doctrine includes methodology of betrayal, of broken promises and of interpretive possibilities discarded. From its inception, desegregation law manifested a notable lack of candor. As the body of law developed, the test prescribed for determining liability immediately undercut the reach of the remedy. And now, Supreme Court...

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Synopses of Other Important Works

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p. 248

In White by Law (1995), Ian F. Haney Lopez examines the legal and social origins of white racial identity in early Supreme Court cases having to do with naturalization. Decided at a time when whiteness was a condition of becoming a U.S. citizen, these cases show courts equivocating about what whiteness really is-whether it might...

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From the Editors: Issues and Comments

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p. 248

Does law force people to identify themselves as white, black, or brown, etc.? Does it create those categories in the first place? And what of whiteness-did American courts invent the idea, as a number of our authors imply? Did it have a lot of help...

Suggested Readings

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p. 249

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PART V: Whiteness: Culture's Role

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pp. 251-252

Many authorities believe that one of the most pervasive ways in which racial ideas are conveyed and reinforced is through language--the narratives, tales, sayings, jokes, movie...

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39 Do You Know This Man?

DANIEL ZALEWSKI

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pp. 253-254

Warner Sallman was a devout Christian and a commercial artist who designed everything from advertising flyers to magazine covers for religious publications. Though he attended the tony Art Institute of Chicago, Sallman was most comfortable with the language of advertising. (A shiny copyright symbol can be found emblazoned on the...

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40 The Curse of Ham

D. MARVIN JONES

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pp. 255-257

The fact that black and white represent a falling out of color represents the idea that ultimately black and white signify a falling out of meaning 2 and coherence. 3 Thus, as Anthony Appiah has stated, race has no real side referent. 4 Black and white may just be signifiers of each other before they are signifiers of any...

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41 Los Olvidados: On the Making of Invisible People

JUAN F. PEREA

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pp. 258-262

According to its English conquerors, America was always meant to belong to white Englishmen. In 1788, John Jay, writing in the Federalist Number 2, declared: "Providence has been pleased to give this one connected country to one united people-a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the...

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42 White Innocence, Black Abstraction

THOMAS ROSS

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pp. 263-266

To understand the power of the theme of white innocence, one must begin with the cultural conception of innocence. To be innocent is important everywhere in our culture. The argument for the white person's innocence in matters of race connects with the cultural ideas of innocence and defilement. The very contrast between...

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43 Race and the Dominant Gaze: Narratives of Law and Inequality in Popular Film

MARGARET M. RUSSELL

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pp. 267-272

In The Birth of a Nation (Epoch Pictures, 1915), frequently cited as a milestone in the history of American motion pictures, D. W. Griffith offered his vision of race relations in the United States. Originally entitled The Clansman, the film portrays a South ravaged by the Civil War, corrupted by Reconstruction, and eventually redeemed by the...

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44 Residential Segregation and White Privilege

MARTHA R. MAHONEY

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pp. 273-275

Residential segregation and white dominance are integrally related. White choices are not only the aggregation of individual preferences regarding proximity to blacks. Rather, governmental and private forces-in interaction with each other-in the past created a racialized process of urban/suburban development in which...

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45 Mules, Madonnas, Babies, Bathwater: Racial Imagery and Stereotypes

LINDA L. AMMONS

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pp. 276-279

Facts from a recent case help to illustrate how the conduct of a battered black woman is contrasted with the perception of how a battered white woman responds. A twenty-nine-year-old black woman, Pamela Hill, lived with her abusive boyfriend, Roy Chaney. At trial, the evidence revealed that police had been called to...

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46 The Other Pleasures: The Narrative Function of Race in the Cinema

ANNA EVERETT

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pp. 280-284

Even with the phenomenal influence of cultural studies and of cognitive and feminist theories, there remains a conspicuous absence of theorizing about the narrative function of race qua race in contemporary films. I contend that...

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Synopses of Other Important Works

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pp. 285-288

Ronald Takaki, in Iron Cages (Knopf, 1979), describes how early opinion makers like Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, went about teaching that African-Americans were afflicted by a kind of disease of the body that accounted for their color...

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From the Editors: Issues and Comments

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p. 288

Is it possible to imagine Eve, Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or Joan of Arc as black? If you could buy a bar of black soap or white soap (otherwise identical), would you buy the black soap? If it were cheaper? Five percent more effective at cleaning and killing germs? In our society, do films, stories, and songs...

Suggested Readings

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p. 288

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PART VI: White Privilege

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pp. 289-290

Does being white bring prerogatives-or detriments and liabilities! Black entertainers and athletes get all the attention, and affirmative action certainly benefits persons of minority race (and women) and not white men, at least in individual cases. But few passersby on a dark sidewalk would cross the street to avoid coming face to face with an...

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47 White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women's Studies

PEGGY MCINTOSH

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pp. 291-299

Through work to bring materials and perspectives from Women's Studies into the rest of the curriculum, I have often noticed men's unwillingness to grant that they are over-privileged in the curriculum, even though they may grant that women are disadvantaged. Denials which amount to taboos...

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48 From Practice to Theory, or What Is a White Woman Anyway?

CATHARINE A. MacKINNON

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pp. 300-304

In recent critiques of feminist work for failing to take account of race or class, race and class are regarded as unproblematically real and not in need of justification or theoretical construction. 3 Only gender is not real and needs to be justified. 4 Although many women have demanded that discussions of race or class take gender into...

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49 Racial Construction and Women as Differentiated Actors

MARTHA R. MAHONEY

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pp. 305-309

What is race? A social construct, a concept having no natural truth, no truth separate from historical development, and possibly no truth comprehensible apart from domination. The term has meant different things in this country over time; and its social and cultural meanings continue to change...

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50 The GI Bill: Whites Only Need Apply

KAREN BRODKIN SACKS

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pp. 310-313

The GI Bill of Rights, as the 1944 Serviceman's Readjustment Act was known, was arguably the most massive affirmative action program in U.S. history. It was created to develop needed labor-force skills, and to provide those who had them with a life-style that reflected their value to the economy. The GI benefits ultimately...

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51 Making Systems of Privilege Visible

STEPHANIE M. WILDMAN, ADRIENNE D. DAVIS

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pp. 314-319

Race and gender are, after all, just words. Yet when we learn that someone has had a child, our first question is usually "Is it a girl or a boy?" Why do we ask that, instead of something like" Are the mother and child healthy?" We ask, "Is it a girl or a boy?" according to philosopher Marilyn Frye, because we do not know how to relate...

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52 Race and Racial Classifications

LUTHER WRIGHT JR.

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pp. 320-322

Even though the Louisiana statute was highly biased toward white purity, it was the last rule in the modern era with some notion of a bright-line definition. However, all states still require racial data at birth for statistical purposes such as monitoring population migration, disease, and fertility among racial groups. These statutory...

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53 Reflections on Whiteness: The Case of Latinos(as)

STEPHANIE M. WILDMAN

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pp. 323-326

Not long ago, I was invited to speak at the University of Texas. The university has a reimbursement request form, which the law journal had filled out, so that they could be reimbursed for sending me an airplane ticket. A state school, Texas devoted a portion of the form to questions about race and ethnicity. In an effort to be helpful, the...

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54 Stirring the Ashes: Race, Class, and the Future of Civil Rights Scholarship

FRANCES LEE ANSLEY

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pp. 327-329

The "class model" of white supremacy portrays it as a means to justify and enhance class dominance and thus to strengthen existing relations of economic power. This function gives racism its central status in American political life and assures its survival. This is the source of racism's strength and resilience. The class model...

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55 The Social Construction of Whiteness

MARTHA R. MAHONEY

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pp. 330-333

Race is a phenomenon always in formation. Therefore whiteness, like other racial constructions, is subject to contest and change. Whiteness is historically located, malleable, and contingent. Arguments about the contingency of white privilege, and its dysfunctionality for white working people, may seem...

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Synopses of Other Important Works

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p. 334

In The Wages of Whiteness (Verso, 1991), the University of Minnesota historian David Roediger amplifies the interaction of race, social construction, and class explored elsewhere in this volume. In the fifth chapter of his book...

From the Editors: Issues and Comments

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p. 334

Suggested Readings

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p. 335

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PART VII: The Ladder of Whiteness

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pp. 337-338

Our society prides itself on the way it holds out the promise of upward mobility to all groups, including immigrants. The lines etched on the base of the Statue of Liberty...

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56 The Mind of the South

W. J. CASH

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pp. 339-347

There remain the people who, under the classical interpretation, were lumped together as poor whites-the non-slaveholding masses of the South. Who were they? Obviously and simply, in the large and outside the oldest regions, the residue of the generally homogeneous population...

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57 Old Poison in New Bottles: The Deep Roots of Modern Nativism

JOE R. FEAGIN

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pp. 348-353

Dating back at least two centuries, anti-immigrant nativism has profoundly shaped the history and present demography of this nation. For instance, the 1990 census revealed that only twelve of the world's nearly two hundred countries were checked off by as much as one percent of Americans as countries...

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58 The First Word in Whiteness: Early Twentieth-Century European Immigration

DAVID ROEDIGER

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pp. 354-356

A character in Chester Himes' 1945 novel, If He Hollers Let Him Go, has a "funny thought." He begins to "wonder when white people started to get white-or rather, when they started losing it." The narrower question of when new immigrants "started to get white" and of what they lost in doing it has received passionate...

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59 Life on the Color Line

GREGORY WILLIAMS

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pp. 357-359

Straightening my back, I turned toward him. He tightened his lips. My stomach rumbled with anger. I refused to believe we could not live with Grandpa and Grandma! They would end all the worries about food, clothes, and lunch money. If Dad thought Grandpa and Grandma didn't want us, he was...

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60 Others, and the WASP World They Aspired To

RICHARD BROOKHISER

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pp. 360-367

In its brief history, America has experienced the greatest population transfer the Western world has known since the fall of Rome, with happier results. This human tsunami has been seen as a simple transfer, not an...

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61 Beyond the Melting Pot

NATHAN GLAZER AND DANIEL PATRICK MOYNIHAN

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pp. 368-377

It was reasonable to believe that a new American type would emerge, a new nationality in which it would be a matter of indifference whether a man was of AngloSaxon or German or Italian or Jewish origin, and in which indeed, because...

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62 The Economic Payoff of Attending an Ivy-League Institution

PHILIP J. COOK AND ROBERT H. FRANK

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pp. 378-380

Many of our best and brightest high-school seniors know what most of our higher-education leaders have been reluctant to admit: An increasingly small number of colleges and universities have become the gatekeepers...

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63 Useful Knowledge

MARY CAPPELLO

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pp. 381-386

In the process of becoming official, of gaining the authority to reproduce know ledges about the history of private and public utterances in the United States, in en- tering the academy as an assistant professor...

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64 Stupid Rich Bastards

LAUREL JOHNSON BLACK

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pp. 387-394

Sunday morning, six 0'clock. Dad knocks on my door and in a stage whisper tells me to get up and get going. Trying not to wake up my sister, I crawl out of bed into the chilly Massachusetts air and...

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65 How Did Jews Become White Folks?

KAREN BRODKIN SACKS

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pp. 395-401

The late nineteenth and early decades of the twentieth centuries saw a steady stream of warnings by scientists, policymakers, and the popular press that "mongrelization" of the Nordic, or Anglo-Saxon,...

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66 How White People Became White

JAMES R. BARRETT AND DAVID ROEDIGER

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pp. 402-406

In 1980, Joseph Loguidice, an elderly Italian-American from Chicago, sat down to give his life story to an interviewer. His first and most vivid childhood recollection was of a race riot that had occurred on the...

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67 Paths to Belonging: The Constitution and Cultural Identity

KENNETH L. KARST

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pp. 407-413

Virtually every cultural minority in America has had to face exclusion, forced conformity, and subordination. All these patterns are variations on the same theme: those who are different cannot belong as full...

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68 Is the Radical Critique of Merit Anti-Semitic?

DANIEL A. FARBER AND SUZANNA SHERRY

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pp. 414-419

[According to critical race theory,] a group's success cannot be justified on the basis of any presumed excellence in the performance of its members. [Critical race theory holds that notions of merit are manipulable...

Synopses of Other Important Works

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p. 420

From the Editors: Issues and Comments

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p. 421

Suggested Readings

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p. 421

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PART VIII: The Color Line: Multiracial People and "Passing for White"

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pp. 423-424

If you were black and could become white by taking a magic pill, would you do so? If you were of mixed race, your skin a medium color of brown so that you could identify...

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69 Passing for White, Passing for Black

ADRIAN PIPER

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pp. 425-431

[T]racing the history of my family is detective work as well as historical research. To date, what I think I know is that our first European-American ancestor landed in Ipswich, Massachusetts, in 1620 from

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70 Black Like Me

JOHN HOWARD GRIFFIN

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pp. 432-437

For the past four days, I had spent my time at the doctor's or closed up in my room with cotton pads over my eyes and the sun lamp turned on me. They had made blood tests twice and found no indication of damage...

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71 The Michael Jackson Pill: Equality, Race, and Culture

JEROME McCRISTAL CULP, JR.

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pp. 438-443

I was leaving Langdell Hall, after having feasted too fervently at my fifteenth law school reunion, when I noticed what...

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72 Did the First Justice Harlan Have a Black Brother?

JAMES w. GORDON

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pp. 444-457

On September 18,1848, James Harlan, father of future Supreme Court Jus- tice John Marshall Harlan, appeared in the Franklin County Court for the purpose of freeing his mulatto slave, Robert Harlan. This....

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73 Learning How to Be Niggers

GREGORY WILLIAMS

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pp. 458-466

We followed the alley to Monroe Street. As we trudged south, I realized I'd never seen so many black people in Muncie before. What bothered...

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74 What Does a White Woman Look Like? Racing and Erasing in Law

KATHERINE M. FRANKE

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pp. 467-470

In significant ways, legal texts produce a narrative of national identity. They weave stories about who we are, what we are committed to, and what we expect of one another, individually and...

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75 La G├╝era

CHERRIE MORAGA

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pp. 471-474

I am the very well-educated daughter of a woman who, by the standards in this country, would be considered largely illiterate. My mother was born...

76 Notes of a White Black Woman

JUDY SCALES-TRENT

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pp. 475-481

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77 Our Next Race Question: The Uneasiness between Blacks and Latinos

JORGE KLOR DE ALVA, EA~L SHORRIS, AND CORNEL WEST

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pp. 482-492

The angry and confused discourse about American race relations that followed the O. J. Simpson trial may have been passionate, but it blindly assumed (as if the year were 1963 or 1861) that the only...

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78 A Review of Life on the Color Line

MARTHA CHAMALLAS AND PETER M. SHANE

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pp. 493-498

In 1954, at the age of ten, Greg Williams took an unforgettable journey to Muncie, Indiana. Until that time, Greg and his younger brother Mike had lived in Virginia as white children. Their mother was white, and...

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79 What Is Race, Anyway?

TOD OLSON

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pp. 499-500

In the winter of 1993, the small town of Wedowee, Alabama, became a flash point of racial tension. The white principal of Randolph County High School had gathered the student body together to find...

Synopses of Other Important Works

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pp. 501-502

From the Editors: Issues and Comments

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p. 502

Suggested Readings

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pp. 503-504

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PART IX: Biology and Pseudoscience

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pp. 505-506

Are races real, innate, the product of physical and genetic differences? Are they arrayed in a hierarchy of intelligence a...

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80 The Misleading Abstractions of Social Scientists

JEROME KAGAN

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pp. 507-509

Five-month-old infants who stare at surprising events for a long time, 5- year-old children with large vocabularies, and 50-year-old adults who invent new computer programs are all described as intelligent. The...

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81 Caste, Crime, and Precocity

ANDREW HACKER

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pp. 510-511

I have no problem accepting The Bell Curve's finding that Americans with European forebearers average better on IQ tests than citizens with African ancestries. And for present purposes, I will concede...

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82 Embodiment and Perspective: Can White Men Jump?

PETER HALEWOOD

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pp. 512-514

Where we are positioned in society, and how we think of and live in our bodies, are questions we do not usually connect to the (both everyday and scholarly) claims we make about social and legal...

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83 Bell Curve Liberals: How the Left Betrayed IQ

ADRIAN WOOLDRIDGE

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pp. 515-518

Opposition to the use of IQ testing goes back as far as testing itself. Its practitioners have been accused of misusing science to justify capitalist exploitation; allowing their obsession with classification...

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84 Brave New Right

MICHAEL LIND

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pp. 519-522

The controversy about The Bell Curve is not about The Bell Curve only. It is about the sudden and astonishing legitimation, by the leading intellectuals and journalists of the mainstream right, of a body...

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85 Race and Parentage

DOROTHY E. ROBERTS

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pp. 523-527

One of the most striking features of technological efforts to provide parents with genetically related offspring is that they are used almost exclusively by affluent white people. The use of fertility clinics does not...

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86 The Sources of The Bell Curve

JEFFREY ROSEN AND CHARLES LANE

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pp. 528-529

By scrutinizing the footnotes and bibliography in The Bell Curve, readers can more easily recognize the project for what it is: a chilly synthesis of the work of disreputable race theorists and eccentric eugenicists. It would be unfair, of course, to ascribe to Murray and Hermstein all the noxious views of their...

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87 Hearts of Darkness

JOHN B. JUDIS

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pp. 530-533

One of the problems with The Bell Curve is that the authors continually muddy their own water with equivocation, qualification, and even contradiction. Which of these statements do Murray and Herrnstein...

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88 Thank You, Doctors Murray and Herrnstein (Or, Who's Afraid of Critical Race Theory?)

DERRICK A. BELL

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pp. 534-537

Radical assessment can encompass illustration, anecdote, allegory, and imagination, as well as analysis of doctrine and cases. I want to utilize all of these techniques to comment on a contemporary...

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89 Dangerous Undertones of the New Nativism

DANIEL KANSTROOM

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pp. 538-541

In the late summer of 1918, with the final defeat of the German empire only a few months away, the first volume of The Decline of the West appeared in Germany and Austria. Written by a then unknown...

Synopses of Other Important Works

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p. 542

From the Editors: Issues and Comments

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p. 542

Suggested Readings

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pp. 543-544

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PART X: White Consciousness, White Power

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pp. 545-546

Nothing is wrong-one might think-with focusing critically on one's own race and racial background and makeup. At times, however, this effort becomes distorted. The student of...

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90 The Rise of Private Militia: A First and Second Amendment Analysis of the Right to Organize and the Right to Train

JOELLE E. POLESKY

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pp. 547-551

Copious news coverage of Ruby Ridge,l Waco,2 and the Oklahoma City bombing3 has prompted a growing concern with the proliferation of paramilitary organizations and paramilitary...

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91 The Changing Faces of White Supremacy

LORETTA J. ROSS AND MARY ANN MAUNEY

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pp. 552-557

White supremacy holds that the interests of people of European descent are superior to those of people who believe, act, or look differently than" normal." It perpetuates the stratification of class, race, religion, sexual...

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92 Hatelines: Week of Sunday, April 7, 1996

COMPILED BY THE CENTER FOR DEMOCRATIC RENEWAL

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pp. 558-560

White pride, white pride, white pride. It's great to be white! White man, fight back! First, the good news. Nigger Ron Brown and a gaggle of chief executive officers from American big business died...

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93 Blue by Day and White by [K]night

ROBIN BARNES

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pp. 561-565

Embittered by the South's defeat during the Civil War, early Klansmen set out to keep the "niggers" in their place and to eliminate all scalawags, carpetbaggers, and other northerners who preached political...

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94 The Race Question and Its Solution

JAMES ARMSTRONG, JR

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pp. 566-572

The political doctrine of the equality of men is a beautiful, but self evident lie. There is no equality among people of even the same...

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95 The American Neo-Nazi Movement Today

ELINOR LANGER

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pp. 573-585

In writing about a subject that carries with it the automatic weight of its association with Nazi Germany, I find myself ... suspended between caution and alarm. Especially about a movement as underreported...

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96 Talking about Race with America's Klansmen

RAPHAEL S. EZEKIEL

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pp. 586-588

From the Reconstruction era to 1945, between 3,000 and 5,000 black Americans were killed in mob violence, much of it instigated by the Ku Klux Klan. Some victims were hanged or burned to death; often...

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97 Antidiscrimination Law and Transparency: Barriers to Equality?

BARBARA J. FLAGG

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pp. 589-591

Racial identity is not a central life experience for most white people, because it does not have to be.1 Like members of any socially dominant group, white people have the option to set aside consciousness...

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98 White Supremacy (And What We Should Do about It)

FRANCES LEE ANSLEY

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pp. 592-595

Civil rights scholars have offered various analyses to explain the development of the civil rights movement, civil rights litigation, and civil rights legal doctrine. Implicit in these analyses are different ideas...

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99 White Superiority in America: Its Legal Legacy, Its Economic Costs

DERRICK A. BELL

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pp. 596-600

A major function of racial discrimination is to facilitate the exploitation of black labor, to deny blacks access to benefits and opportunities, and to blame all the manifestations of exclusion-bred despair on the asserted...

Synopses of Other Important Works

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pp. 601-603

From the Editors: Issues and Comments

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p. 604

Suggested Readings

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p. 604

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PART XI: What Then Shall We Do? A Role for Whites

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pp. 605-606

Whites may-and should-study race, including their own. That is the whole premise of this book. But suppose a white person wants to do more-wants to be an agent for...

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100 Treason to Whiteness Is Loyalty to Humanity

AN INTERVIEW WITH NOEL IGNATIEV OF RACE TRAITOR MAGAZINE

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pp. 607-612

A traitor to the white race is someone who is nominally classified as white, but who defies the rules of whiteness so flagrantly as to jeopardize his or her ability to draw upon the privileges of the white...

101 How to Be a Race Traitor: Six Ways to Fight Being White

NOEL IGNATIEV

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p. 613

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102 Rodrigo's Eleventh Chronicle: Empathy and False Empathy

RICHARD DELGADO

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pp. 614-618

We picked out our desserts, which the waiter quickly brought, Rodrigo's a creamy French-Vietnamese pastry of some sort, mine a tangy lemon sorbet. After eating for a few minutes in tacitly agreed-to...

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103 Obscuring the Importance of Race: The Implications of Making Comparisons between Racism and Sexism (or Other Isms)

TRINA GRILLO AND STEPHANIE M. WILDMAN

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pp. 619-626

While this chapter was being written, Trina Grillo, who is of AfroCuban and Italian descent, was diagnosed as having Hodgkin's disease [a form of cancer]. In talking about this experience she said...

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104 White Men Can Jump: But Must Try a Little Harder

PETER HALEWOOD

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pp. 627-628

I hope to demonstrate that progressive, committed, white male law teachers should engage in scholarship investigating the relation of law to social and political subordination, provided that they do...

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105 "Was Blind, but Now I See": White Race Consciousness and the Requirement of Discriminatory Intent

BARBARA J. FLAGG

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pp. 629-631

The most striking characteristic of whites' consciousness of whiteness is that most of the time we don't have any. I call this the transparency phenomenon: the tendency of whites not to think about...

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106 White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness

RUTH FRANKENBERG

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pp. 632-634

Fundamentally a relational category, whiteness does have content inasmuch as it generates norms, ways of understanding history, ways of thinking about self and other, and even ways of thinking about the notion...

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107 Resisting Racisms, Eliminating Exclusions: South Africa and the United States

DAVID THEO GOLDBERG

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pp. 635-639

Resistance to racisms consists in vigorously contending and disputing exclusionary values, norms, institutions, and practices, as well as assertively articulating open-ended specifications and means for an...

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108 Dysconscious Racism: The Cultural Politics of Critiquing Ideology and Identity

JOYCE E. KING

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pp. 640-641

One goal of my course, when I was Associate Professor of Teacher Education at Santa Clara University, was to sharpen the ability of students to think critically about educational purposes and practice...

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109 What Should White Women Do?

MARTHA R. MAHONEY

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pp. 642-643

Focusing solely on the sexual exploitation of women hides both racist oppression and the strength, struggles, and multiple interests of women of color. The experience of being a woman of color cannot...

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110 Confronting Racelessness

ELEANOR MARIE BROWN

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pp. 644-645

Kendall Thomas coined the phrase "we are raced"l as a race-conscious challenge to the abstract notions of citizen and state as they are conceptualized in liberal legalism. Thomas insists that our received notions...

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111 A Civil Rights Agenda for the Year 2000: Confessions of an Identity Politician

FRANCES LEE ANSLEY

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pp. 646-652

I am not an African-American, and I will not be speaking from the perspective of the African-American community, although I am firmly convinced that my own well-being is intimately bound up....

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112 What We Believe

THE EDITORS OF RACE TRAITOR MAGAZINE

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p. 653

The white race is a historically constructed social formation. It consists of all those who partake of the privileges of the white skin in this society. Its most wretched members share a status higher, in certain...

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113 Segregation, Whiteness, and Transformation

MARTHA R. MAHONEY

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pp. 654-657

Transformative work against segregation and racial oppression must directly confront racism and the social construction of race. Whiteness and blackness are not merely mirror images of each...

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114 White Out

ROGER WILKINS

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pp. 658-663

I live on a street in Washington, D.C., where the Speaker of the House, senators, congressmen, and a couple of Supreme Court justices also live. A few blocks away are two large public-housing projects. The Safeway...

From the Editors: Issues and Comments

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p. 664

Suggested Readings

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p. 664

About the Contributors

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pp. 665-670

Index

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pp. 671-680

Back Cover

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