Cover

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Half title, Series titles, Title page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Illustrations

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pp. ix-xiv

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Preface

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pp. xv-xvi

The present collection gathers cutting-edge research that investigates language learning and multilingualism from varied usage-based perspectives. The book comprises 13 original studies, representing a selection of the Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (GURT) 2014, which we co-organized and hosted at Georgetown University on March 13–16, 2014. ...

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1. Introduction: The Vibrant and Expanded Study of Usage-based Language Learning and Multilingualism

Lourdes Ortega, Andrea E. Tyler

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pp. 1-12

The family of usage-based perspectives posits that humans deploy (or learn to deploy) language in order to create shared meaning. In this first chapter, we introduce the studies in the volume, structuring our commentaries of the chapters around four broad themes: language development across the lifespan in family and classroom contexts, corpus studies of elicited learner language, ...

Part I. Usage-based Development of Language Across the Lifespan

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pp. 13-14

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2. A Multimodal Approach to the Development of Negation in Signed and Spoken Languages: Four Case Studies

Aliyah Morgenstern, Pauline Beaupoil-Hourdel, Marion Blondel, Dominique Boutet

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pp. 15-36

We address the expression of negation in four longitudinal studies including (1) Madeleine, a hearing child in multimodal French interactions, (2) Ellie, a hearing child in multimodal English interactions, (3) Charlotte, a deaf child of deaf parents in monomodal French sign language (langue des signes française, LSF) interactions, and (4) Illana, a hearing child with one deaf, one hearing parent in bimodal bilingual (French-LSF) interactions. ...

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3. Why Don’t You Just Learn it from the Input? A Usage-based Corpus Study on the Acquisition of Conventionalized Indirect Speech Acts in English and German

Ursula Kania

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pp. 37-54

Within traditional approaches, the comprehension of all indirect speech acts (ISAs) involves the consideration and rejection of the ‘literal’ interpretation. More recent cognitive approaches assume that language users operate with cognitive models (e.g., for the act of ‘giving’) and that ISAs activate a specific part of a model (e.g., ‘the hearer is able and willing to perform the act’) ...

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4. Prepositional Phrases as Manner Adverbials in the Development of Hebrew L1 Text Production

Gilad Brandes, Dorit Ravid

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pp. 55-74

The present investigation centers on the development of Hebrew written discourse syntax, focusing on prepositional phrases (PPs) as a specific syntactic construction. Specifically, we examined prepositional phrases that function as manner adverbials (e.g., Be-itiyut, “in-slowness = slowly”) across development. ...

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5. Negative Constructions in Nonliterate Learners’ Spoken L2 Finnish

Taina Tammelin-Laine, Maisa Martin

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pp. 75-90

This chapter discusses the development of Finnish expressions of negation in four initially nonliterate women with very low oral skills during their first ten-month language course. While many studies have been published describing the learning of L2 Finnish by educated adult learners, hardly any research is available on how nonliterate adults learn Finnish. ...

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6. How do Multilinguals Conceptualize Interactions Among Languages Studied? Operationalizing Perceived Positive Language Interaction (PPLI)

Amy S. Thompson

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pp. 91-112

Perceived positive language interaction (PPLI) refers to the perception held by many (but not all) multilinguals that languages studied in the past are interrelated in a positive way that can support and expand a multilingual’s ability to learn subsequent languages. ...

Part II. The Corpus-aided, Usage-based Study of Learner Language

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pp. 113-114

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7. A Friendly Conspiracy of Input, L1, and Processing Demands: That-variation in the Language of German and Spanish Learners of English

Stefanie Wulff

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pp. 115-136

Various studies have investigated the factors governing the variable presence of the complementizer that in English object-, subject- , and adjectival complement constructions as below:. ...

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8. Measuring Lexical Frequency: Comparison Groups and Subject Expression in L2 Spanish

Bret Linford, Avizia Long, Megan Solon, Kimberly L. Geeslin

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pp. 137-154

The present study explores methodological issues related to the growing need to understand the role of lexical frequency (LF) in patterns of language acquisition and use. One specific methodological challenge is determining which measures of LF are appropriate for the study of L2 learners—namely, how do we identify the appropriate comparison for L2 learners? ...

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9. Article Omission: Toward Establishing How Referents Are Tracked in L2 English

Monika Ekiert

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pp. 155-170

Recognizing the learnability problem that the English article system presents for second language (L2) learners, the SLA field has taken a particular interest in documenting its acquisition, especially among learners whose first languages (L1) lack articles. To date, much of the research focuses on the patterns of article use in L2 English as well as the extent of mastery achieved by the learners. ...

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10. Measuring L2 Explicit Knowledge of English Verb-Particle Constructions: Frequency and Semantic Transparency at Two Proficiency Levels

Helen Zhao, Fenfen Le

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pp. 171-186

Verb-particle constructions, also known as phrasal verbs (PVs), have long been challenging for second language (L2) learners of English with its discontinuous syntactic structure and complex semantic structure. Previous literature on L2 PV acquisition focused on the central issues such as avoidance (Gonzalez 2010, 2012; Dagut and Laufer 1985; Laufer and Eliasson 1993; Liao and Fukuya 2004) and first language (L1) effects (Hulstijn and Marchena 1989). ...

Part III. The Experimental Study of Usage-based Processing and Learning

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pp. 187-188

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11. Can English-Spanish Emerging Bilinguals Use Agreement Morphology to Overcome Word Order Bias?

Silvia Marijuan, Sol Lago, Cristina Sanz

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pp. 189-210

Previous second language acquisition studies have shown that English-speaking learners of Spanish, especially at the beginning and intermediate levels of proficiency, persistently misinterpret Object-cliticVerb Subject (OclVS) sentences. Due to transfer effects, these learners rely on word order as the most valid cue for agent-hood, and, therefore, incorrectly assign the preverbal object clitic the role of agent. ...

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12. Miniature Artificial Language Learning as a Complement to Typological Data

Maryia Fedzechkina, Elissa L. Newport, T. Florian Jaeger

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pp. 211-232

As observed by linguist Joseph Greenberg (Greenberg 1963), languages across the world seem to share properties at all levels of linguistic organization. Some of these patterns are regularities in the crosslinguistic distribution of elements that hold across languages (non-implicational universals1). ...

Part IV. Multilingualism in the Wild: Usage-based Insights

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pp. 233-234

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13. Patterns of Interaction in Doctor-Patient Communication and Their Impact on Health Outcomes

Diana Slade, Christian M.I.M. Matthiessen, Graham Lock, Jack Pun, Marvin Lam

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pp. 235-254

Studies across the world have demonstrated that effective communication is fundamental to the delivery of safe and high-quality health care. However, identifying the direct relationship between effective communication and patient health outcomes that can affect patient safety has proved more problematic. ...

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14. Toward a Model of Multilingual Usage

Michel Achard, Sarah Lee

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pp. 255-274

Since the early eighties, the study of multilingual discourse has been dominated by the investigation of the conditions under which speakers switch between the different languages they have at their disposal in specific contexts (e.g., Auer 1984; Gumperz 1982; and Romaine 1995 among many others). ...

Contributors

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pp. 275-280

Index

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pp. 281-290