Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. iii-iv

Contents

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pp. v-xviii

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INTRODUCTION

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pp. xix-xxiv

The ancient Near East, until about a century ago, had as its chief witness the text of the Hebrew Bible. Relatively insignificant was the evidence recovered from sources outside the Bible; that which had been found had not been sufficiently understood to serve as a reliable historical source. Through explorations and excavations carried on within the last century in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and Syria, a wealth of new information has become available. This new light from extrabiblical texts has served not only to enlarge immeasurably the horizon for a knowledge of the ancient Near East, but it has also sharpened considerably the understanding of the content of the Bible itself. Not...

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INTRODUCTION TO THE THIRD EDITION

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pp. xxv-xxvi

Since Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament was first published in 1950, many new texts have been discovered and some o£ the older ones have come to be better understood. In 1955 a second, revised edition appeared with changes and corrections in the text and the addition of two new sections, Canaanite and Aramaic Inscriptions and South-Arabian Inscriptions, which were obviously relevant for the study of the Old Testament. Now after eighteen years we have made ...

I. MYTHS, EPICS, AND LEGENDS

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EGYPTIAN MYTHS, TALES, AND MORTUARY TEXTS

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pp. 3-36

The following text served in the dedication ritual of a royal pyramid by recalling the first creation, when the god Atum of Heliopolis was on a primeval hillock arising out of the waters of chaos and there brought the first gods into being. In like manner, the god is now asked to bless the rising pyramid, an analogue of the hillock. The text was carved inside the pyramids of Mer-ne-Re and Pepi II (Nefer-ka-Re) of the Sixth Dynasty (24th century B .C .) , from which the following translation is made. Parts of the text were popular in later times, to ...

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SUMERIAN MYTHS AND EPIC TALES

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pp. 37-59

“Enki and Ninhursag” is one of the best preserved of the Sumerian myths uncovered to date. The story it tells is well nigh complete and at least on the surface most of the details of its rather complicated plot are reasonably intelligible. Unfortunately, the main purpose of the myth as a whole is by no means clear and the literary and mythological implications of its numerous and varied motifs are not readily analyzable.1 Nevertheless it adds much that is significant for...

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AKKADIAN MYTHS AND EPICS

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pp. 60-119

The material here offered is intended to be representative rather than exhaustive. It is not always possible to draw a sharp line between Akkadian compositions devoted to myths and related material, and those that concern other types of religious literature, not to mention special categories of historical nature. Furthermore, considerations of space and time have tended to exclude sundry literary remains whose bearing on the purpose of this work is not immediately apparent. It is hoped, however, that nothing of genuine relevance has been...

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HITTITE MYTHS, EPICS, AND LEGENDS

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pp. 120-128

Text: KUB, xxvm, 5 and its duplicate 4; the text is bilingual, in Hattie and Hittite. Literature: J. Friedrich, AfO, xi (1936/37) 76 f.; H. Th. Bossert, Asia (Istanbul, 1947), 164 ff. (10) The Moon-god2 (Hattie: Kalfet) fell down from heaven. He fell upon the kilammar. But no one saw him. The Storm-god2 (Hattie: Taru) sent rain after him, he sent rainstorms after him so that fear seized him (and) fright seized him. (15) Hapantalliyas (Hattie: Hapantalli) went...

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UGARITIC MYTHS, EPICS, AND LEGENDS

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pp. 129-156

Ugaritic poetry falls into distinct metrical units, but these were not indicated outwardly by the scribes. In the following translation, every colon is printed on a separate line. Isolated cola are not common. As a rule there are two, and sometimes there are three, to a stich. In the translation, the second and third cola in each stich are indented. The numbers in the right margin are those of the lines in the Ugaritic tablet, which, as has been explained, do not coincide with the...

II. LEGAL TEXTS

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COLLECTIONS OF LAWS FROM MESOPOTAMIA AND ASIA MINOR

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pp. 159-198

Like the Hammurabi Code, that of Lipit-Ishtar consists of three main sections: a Prologue; the legal text proper consisting of a large number of laws introduced by a Sumerian complex which is roughly the equivalent of the English word “if” ; an Epilogue. The Prologue begins with a statement by King LipitIshtar, the fifth ruler of the Dynasty of Isin, that after the leading Sumero-Babylonian deities Anu and Enlil had given the goddess Ninisinna1 a favorable reign...

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EGYPTIAN AND HITTITE TREATIES

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pp. 199-225

The reign of Ramses II began in hostility against the Hittite state. However, by this pharaoh’s twenty-first year (about 1280 B .C .) , both powers were ready to conclude a treaty, so that they might turn their attention to other problems, such as the encroachments of the “Sea Peoples.” The offensive and defensive alliance set forth in the following document mentions no effective frontier between the two empires. Perhaps there was no one firm line, but Egyptian hegemony was recognized in Palestine and southern Phoenicia, Hittite hegemony in...

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HITTITE INSTRUCTIONS

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pp. 207-211

(Less than half of the tablet—parts of the columns ii and iii—yields an intelligible text.) (ii) [If] anyone does something [in an uncl]ean way (or if) anyone arouses [the king’s displeasure], (but) you say as follows: “ [The king] is not seeing us,” (be aware of the fact that) the king’s gods will certainly observe you. They wi...

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DOCUMENTS FROM THE PRACTICE OF LAW

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pp. 212-224

No codes of laws have been found for ancient Egypt. This means either that such collections of laws were written on papyrus and leather and so have not survived or that pharaonic Egypt did not codify law, but rather operated on the basis of topical justice originating in the word of the god-king. We do possess royal decrees, framed to meet particular situations.1 Most common are the charters ...

III. HISTORICAL TEXTS

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EGYPTIAN HISTORICAL TEXTS

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pp. 225-264

Inscriptional evidence on the relations of Egypt and Asia under the Old Kingdom is slight. For the most part, we rely upon the uninscribed materials coming out of excavations in both areas for evidence on the strength of such contacts. The following are samples of texts playing on the problem of Egyptian interest in Asia* (See Addenda). a The jar-sealing of a Second Dynasty king, who lived about 2850 or 2800 B .C., may...

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BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN HISTORICAL TEXTS

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pp. 265-317

For this section, two documents have been selected to illustrate the content and the stylistic features of early Mesopotamian historiography, while two groups of texts have been translated to represent the historical source material, which is rather rare in this period. The texts of the first part are: (i) an excerpt of the Sumerian King List, and (2) the “Sargon Chronicle.” The second part contains (1) two inscriptions from statues of Sargon of Agade, (2) an excerpt from a...

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HITTITE HISTORICAL TEXTS

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pp. 318-319

.I, the Sun Suppiluliumas, the great king, the king of the Hatti land, the valiant, the favorite of the Stormgod, went to war. Because of king Tusratta’s1 presumptuousness I crossed the Euphrates and invaded the country of Isuwa.2 The country of Isuwa1 vanquished for the second time and made them again my subjects. The countries which in the time of my father (20) had crossed over into the country ...

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PALESTINIAN INSCRIPTIONS

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pp. 320-322

R. A. S. Macalister; it is on a school exercise tablet of soft limestone. For a number of years its date was uncertain, but recent discoveries establish its relative archaism and point to the second half of the tenth century or the very beginning of the ninth as its probable time. The writer would date it in or about the third quarter of the tenth century—about 925 b .c . in round numbers. The language is good biblical Hebrew, in a very early spelling; it is written in verse and seems to have been a kind of mnemonic ditty for children...

IV. RITUALS, INCANTATIONS, AND DESCRIPTIONS OF FESTIVALS

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EGYPTIAN RITUALS AND INCANTATIONS

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pp. 325-330

on the ritual to be performed in making offerings. The most common setting is the mortuary offering to the dead, in which the material offered is called “the Eye of Horus.” The deceased was thought of as Osiris, and the servitor thus became his pious son Horus, who offered up his eye fighting on behalf of his father. The brief extract which follows is accompanied by the directions to the servitor for his manual acts. The passages come from...

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AKKADIAN RITUALS

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pp. 331-345

Copies, transcriptions, and translations: F. Thureau-Dangin, Rituels accadiens (Paris, 1921), 127-154; translation only: E. Ebeling, AOT, 295-303. Two duplicate texts are involved, one in Paris and the other in London, both tablets dating to the Seleucid period. The program described may go back to a much earlier time. On the second day of the month Nisannu, two hours of the night (remaining?), the urigdlu-priest shall arise and wash with river water. He shall enter into the presence of the god Bel, a...

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HITTITE RITUALS, INCANTATIONS, AND DESCRIPTION OF FESTIVAL

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pp. 346-362

At nightfall they [ . . . ] and they w[ipe clean] the god. F[or the sake of the king] they treat him1 with herbs against words of blasphemy (and) curse. Also [for the sake] of the queen’s implements [they treat him with herbs]. (15) [She2 hand]s a soda-plant to the one who holds the queen’s implements during the ceremony and while doing so she speaks..

V. HYMNS AND PRAYERS

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EGYPTIAN HYMNS AND PRAYERS

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pp. 365-381

Egypt’s world position under her Empire produced strong tendencies toward centralization and unification of Egyptian religion, with universalism and with syncretism of the gods. The following hymn antedates the Amarna Revolution. The imperial god Amon-Re is here viewed as supreme and as the force which creates and sustains life. Papyrus Boulaq 17 in the Cairo Museum dates from the Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1350 B .C .) . It was published by A. Mariette, Les Papyrus...

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SUMERIAN PETITION

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p. 382

The following text represents an epistolary composition highly prized by the Babylonian scribes who developed it into a special literary genre. Quite a number of these “petitions” are now extant. They take the form of a letter addressed to a king or deity; in the latter case the writer of the petition may be the king himself.1 In the text before us, an individual from Ur by the name of Urshagga probably addresses the petition letter to the king of Ur, whose name he unfortunately fails to mention. Three copies of this text have been found to date: two were excavated in the city of Erech, and one may come from Nippur. The latter was published by S. Lang...

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SUMERO-AKKADIAN HYMNS AND PRAYERS

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pp. 383-578

Praise the goddess, the most awesome of the goddesses. Let one revere the mistress of the peoples, the greatest of the Igigi.1 Praise Ishtar, the most awesome of the goddesses. Let one revere the queen of women, the greatest of the IgigiShe is clothed with pleasure and love. She is laden with vitality, charm, and voluptuousness. Ishtar is clothed with pleasure and love. She is laden with vitality...

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HITTITE PRAYERS

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pp. 393-402

To the Sun-goddess of Arinna, my lady, the mistress of the Hatti lands, the queen of heaven and earth. Sun-goddess of Arinna, thou art queen of all countries! In the Hatti country thou bearest the name of the Sun-goddess of Arinna; (5) but in the land which thou madest the cedar land thou bearest the name Hebat. I, Pudu-hepas, am a servant of thine from of old, a heifer from thy stable, a foundation ...

VI. DIDACTIC AND WISDOM LITERATURE

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FABLES AND DIDACTIC TALES

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pp. 405-411

This remarkable text carries the argument between a man who is weary of this life and his own soul. Since he finds life unbearable, the man contemplates suicide. His soul vacillates, first agrees, then fears that suicide will entail the danger that the man will have no mortuary service from his survivors, then proposes an abandonment to a life of careless pleasures, and finally agrees to remain with the man in any case. The text dates from the Middle Kingdom, or, more probably, from the disturbed times...

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PROVERBS AND PRECEPTS

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pp. 412-430

The Egyptians delighted in compilations of wise sayings, which were directive for a successful life. To them, this was “wisdom.” One of the earliest of these compilations purports to come from Ptah-hotep, the vizier of King Izezi of the Fifth Dynasty (about 2450 B .C .). The old councilor is supposed to be instructing his son and designated successor on the actions and attitudes which make a successful official of the state. The chief manuscript is the Papyrus Prisse of the Bibliothique Nationale in Paris (No. 183-194),..

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OBSERVATIONS ON LIFE AND THE WORLD ORDER

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pp. 431-440

The beginning of the instruction which he made for his children. I tell something important And cause that ye hear (it). I cause that ye know a counsel of eternity And a manner of living aright1 (10) And for passing a lifetime in peace. Worship King Ni-maat-Re, living...

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ORACLES AND PROPHECIES

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pp. 441-452

The following text is “ prophetic” in a biblical sense. The “prophet” is not foretelling the future but is standing before a pharaoh and condemning the past and present administration of Egypt. The manuscript is too fragmentary for a full, connected sense. It seems clear, however, that Egypt had suffered a breakdown of government, accompanied by social and economic chaos. These calamities met with indifference in the palace. A certain Ipu-wer, about whom nothing is known apart from the surviving text, appeared at ...

VII. LAMENTATIONS

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SUMERIAN LAMENTATIONS

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pp. 455-464

The composition bewails the destruction of Ur at the hands of the Elamites and Subarians.1 It consists of 436 lines divided into 11 “songs”2 or stanzas of uneven length; they are separated from one another by an “antiphon”3 of one or two lines. The text has been reconstructed from 22 tablets and fragments; except for one tablet which probably comes from Ur,4 they were all excavated at Nippur. The tablets on which the poem is inscribed all date from the Early ...

VIII. SECULAR SONGS AND POEMS

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EGYPTIAN SECULAR SONGS AND POEMS

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pp. 467-472

A common scene in the tombs of ancient Egypt shows a harper entertaining guests at a feast. More than once he calls upon them to surrender themselves to pleasure, because they can have no certainty that earthly diligence will lead to eternal bliss. The present translation is made from Papyrus Harris 500 (now British Museum 10060), recto vi 2-vii 3, a manuscript of about 1300 b .c . A closely similar version was in the Sakkarah tomb of Pa-Aton-em-heb, of the Amarna period (about 1375- 1360 b . c . ) , now in Leyden. The ...

IX. LETTERS

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AN EGYPTIAN LETTER

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pp. 475-479

This text was one of the admired literary compositions of the late Empire and was used for the instruction of apprentice scribes. A royal official Hori received a letter from a scribe Amen-em-Opet. Hori responded in lofty and sarcastic vein, attempting to expose the weaknesses in his correspondent’s qualifications for office. A particular value for our purposes is the summary catalogue of places in the Egyptian empire in Asia. Papyrus Anastasi I (British Museum 10247) is of the late Nineteenth Dynasty (end of the 13th century b . c . ) and probably comes from Memphis. In addition...

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A SUMERIAN LETTER

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pp. 480-481

This document is of considerable importance to the modern historian; it provides us with a lively and probably contemporary account of the troubled conditions of the last years of the Third Dynasty of U r.1 It purports to be a letter addressed by Ibbi-Sin, the last ruler of the Third Dynasty of Ur,2 to Puzur-Numushda, the governor of Kazallu,8 and it refers primarily to events involving Ishbi-Irra, Ibbi-Sin’s mortal enemy and founder of the Dynasty of Isin.* Its contents run approximately as follows:6 Following the conventional letter heading...

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AKKADIAN LETTERS

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pp. 482-491

In 1935-38 Andr£ Parrot excavated the palace of king ZimriLim (about 1730-1700 b.c.) at Tell el-Hariri, ancient Mari on the Middle Euphrates. Among nearly 20,000 cuneiform tablets found in this palace were some 5,000 letters, mostly written by native Amorites (Northwestern Semites) in a Babylonian full of West-Semitic words and grammatical usages. Personal names, language and customs ref...

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ARAMAIC LETTERS

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pp. 491-492

ides. Text: Sachau, 6 ; Ungnad, 6 ; Cowley, 2 1 . Date: 419 b .c . [To] my [brethren Yedojniah1 and his colleagues the [J]ewish garfrison], your brother' Hanan[iah].2 The welfare of my brothers may God3 [seek at all times]. Now, this year, the fifth year of King Darius, word was sent from the king to Arsa[mes4 saying, “Authorize a festival of unleavened b...

X. MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS

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EGYPTIAN TEXTS

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p. 495

The Egyptians had a strong sense of past dignity and accomplishment, so that they constandy invoked the authority of previous times in order to give sanction to the present. In literature of various kinds, a frequent statement emphasized the fidelity of the present copy to an older model.1 A common case lay in the medical papyri, in which the prescriptions were given authority through the claim that there had been discovered an old document which went back to the days of Egypt’s first dynasties, and which was also...

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SUMERIAN LOVE SONG

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p. 496

This little poem seems to be a love-song dedicated to Shu-Sin, the fourth ruler of the Third Dynasty of Ur, who reigned sometime about 2000 b.c. It was probably composed by a woman1 who belonged to the priestly order known as lu\ur by the Sumerians and natitu2 by the Akkadians. Only one tablet inscribed with the poem has as yet been found; it was excavated in Nippur and dates...

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HITTITE OMEN

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pp. 497-658

(2) In the temple of (god) Kismaras. (blank space),1 unfavorable. [We asked the temple officials and they said: “The] harsiyalli vessel has not been poured out [for] 9 days, and the wine portion has been omitted.” Bird omina, un[favorable. If it is only this, ditto.2] We asked them again and they said: “They omitted the fresh loaves.” Bird omina, unfavorabl...

XI. SUPPLEMENT

Translators and ANNOTATORS

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p. ii

Table of Contents

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pp. iii-vi

SUPPLEMENT TO Ancient Near Eastern Texts

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Akkadian Myths and Epics

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pp. 501-518

Since the second edition of this volume was published there has been considerable improvement in our knowledge of Akkadian myths and epics. This improvement is due in part to continuing study of the texts already known and in part to new texts which have come to light. It is unfortunate that, due to his untimely death, Professor E. A. Speiser was unable to ...

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Hittite Myths, Epics, and Legends

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pp. 519-520

(i) [“. . . . Give thyself to me, then] I shall give myself to thee; I shall harass thee with my word, [with my sp]indle I shall prick thee. [....] I shall stir thee up.” The Storm-god heard the words. (5) He went on his way and betook himself to the well-spring of the MalaRiver. [He] came to El-kunirsha,1 the husband of Ashertu,2 and entered El-kunirsh...

II. Legal Texts

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Collections of Laws from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor

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pp. 523-528

Ur-Nammu (2112-2095 Bc-) was the founding ruler of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur, the builder of the best preserved ziggurat in ancient Mesopotamia, whose reign inaugurated the last great period of Sumerian literary creativity. Although some contemporary examples of this creative effort have begun to come to light in recent excavations at Nippur, most of the literary and scholarly production of this ...

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Egyptian and Hittite Treaties

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pp. 529-530

Texts: Akkadian version: KUB, m, 7 + 122; KUB, rv, 94. Hittite version: KBo, x, 12, 12a, 13. Literature: E. F. Weidner, Politische Dokumente cuts Kleinasien (Boghaz\oiStudien, vm, 1923)) 70-7 5 ; H. Freydank, M/O, v i i (i960), 356-81; H. Klengel, OLZ, 1964, 437-45. The Hittite text which is followed here can be largely reconstructed by the Akka...

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Akkadian Treaties from Syria and Assyria

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pp. 531-541

Before the discovery of the treaty of Esarhaddon with the vassal princes only a few treaties imposed by Mesopotamian sovereigns were known, and those were in a fragmentary state of preservation. The newly found Esarhaddon treaty not only increases the actually available textual material but also serves to restore and to increase the understanding of the previously known treaty fragments. Understandably, the parallelism with Biblical material has given ...

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Documents from the Practice of Law

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pp. 542-447

...Nanna-sig son of Lu-Suen, Ku-Enlilla son of KuNanna the barber, and Enlil-ennam son of Adda-kalla, the orchard-keeper, murdered Lu-Inanna son of Lugaluru, the rmAa^w-priest. (6) After Lu-Inanna son of Lugal-uru was dead, they (i.e., the murderers) told Nin-dada daughter of LuNinurta, wife of Lu-Inanna...

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Aramaic Papyri from Elephantine

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pp. 548-550

Emil G. Kraeling, The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri: New Documents of the Jewish Colony at Elephantine (New Haven, 1953), Papyrus 5, pp. 178 ff. Pis. V and XIX. H. L. Ginsberg, JAOS, lxxiv (1954), 158. (I) On the 20th of Siwan,1 that is the 7th day of Phamenoth,2 the year 38 of King Artaxerxes3—at that time, (2) Meshullam so...

III. Historical Texts

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pp. 551-552

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Egyptian Historical Texts

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pp. 553-555

In the Thirteenth Dynasty (mid-eighteenth century b .c . ) there is evidence for the presence of numerous Asiatics serving in Egyptian households. Whether they should specifically be called “slaves” is not certain, even if probable. Since there is no contemporaneous evidence for military capture of Asiatics, the Joseph story (Gen. 37:28, 36) may supply the solution, in a trade in Asiatics carried on by Asiatics themselves. The present text deals ...

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Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts

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pp. 556-567

On nine bricks found by A. Parrot in 1953 in Mari, we have the longest brick inscription ever to come out of Mesopotamian soil, 147 to 157 lines in five columns. It contains the dedication of the temple of Shamash by Yahdun-Lim, the father of ZimriLim, after his campaign to the Mediterranean Sea and the defeat of an alliance of nomadic enemies. Publication: G. Dossin, “L’inscription de fondation de Iahdun-Lim, roi de Mari" in Syria, xxxii (1935), pp. 1 - 2 8 , Plates...

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Palestinian Inscriptions

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pp. 568-570

In i960 J. Naveh excavated a fortress on the Mediterranean seven km. northwest of Jamnia and three km. south of the mouth of the Wadi Rubin (Nahal Soreq). The name then given the site turned out to be based on an erroneous reading of the ostracon in question. The life of the fortress could be dated within narrow limits by the typical late pre-exilic and early Ionian (Southwest-Anatolian Greek...

V. Hymns and Prayers

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Sumerian Hymns

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pp. 573-586

This pious, devotional document was composed by a Sumerian temple poet1 in glorification of Enlil, his city Nippur, his temple the Ekur, and his wife Ninlil. Beginning on a narrative note relating how the all-commanding, all-searching, deeply revered Enlil set up his dwelling in the Duranki2 of Nippur (lines 1-13), the hymn continues with a portrayal of the city as the guardian of man’s loftiest moral and spiritual values, and therefore as a fitting home for Enlil’s dwelling, the Ekur (lines 14-40), and concludes with an exulting affirmation...

V.I. Didactic and Wisdom Literature

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Sumerian Wisdom Text

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pp. 589-591

This “lamentation to a man’s god,” as the ancient author himself describes it, is an edifying poetic essay composed, no doubt, for the purpose of prescribing the proper attitude and conduct for a victim of cruel and seemingly undeserved misfortune. The Sumerians, like all peoples throughout the ages, were troubled by the problem of human suffering, particularly relative to its rather enigmatic causes and potential remedies. Their teachers and sages believed and taught the doctrine that man’s misfortunes were the result of his...

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Akkadian Didactic and Wisdom Literature

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pp. 592-607

Text and translation: Lambert, BWL, pp. 151-64. An Old Babylonian version of this contest, which differs in some respects from this text and the other Ashur text translated here, is preserved. See Lambert, BWL, pp. 155 f. It begins with a phrase familiar as the opening line of Sumerian literary texts from at least 2600 b .c . on: “In long-ago days, in far-off years,” followed by a mythological introduction. I...

VII. Lamentations

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Sumerian Lamentation

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pp. 610-620

This outstanding composition, that is of no little significance for the history of Sumer as well as for its religion and culture, consists of over 500 lines, of which about 400 are fairly well preserved. It is divided into five kjrugu , or stanzas, of unequal length. The first of these, which consists of 115 lines, begins with a detailed account of the tragic fate decreed by the four leading deides of the Sum...

IX. Letters

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Akkadian Letters

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pp. 623-642

With the exception of the last (j), all the letters are from the Mari archives. Because of their importance for the history of prophecy they are already the subject of a considerable literature; see especially: F.M.T. de Liagre Bohl, Opera Minora (Groningen-Djakarta, 1953), 63-80; A. Malamat, Eretz-lsrael, iv (1956), 74-84; v (1958), 67-73; Supplement to VT, Vol. xv (Leiden, 1966), 207-227; ...

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SUMERIAN SACRED MARRIAGE TEXTS

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pp. 643-645

This poem, which consists largely of a dialogue between Inanna and Dumuzi, begins with a boastful address by the goddess intended to impress her husband-to-be with the importance of her family for his well-being (lines 1-6). Dumuzi’s answer, gentle but firm, is that his family is as good as Inanna’s (lines 7-22). But this little quarrel serves only to arouse their passion for each other and they proceed t...

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Sumerian Miscellaneous Texts

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pp. 646-652

This rather unusual “historiographic” 1 document, first composed (probably) about 2000 b . c .2 by a Sumerian theologian-poet with a reflective and inventive turn of mind, is of significance for the history of religious thought. Its central theme concerns national catastrophe as a direct consequence of divine wrath kindled by a defiant act on the part of man. In the case of Sumer, the disastrous catastrophe came in the guise of a humiliating and destructive invasion by the barbarous, ruthless Gutians from the Zagros range...

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CANAANITE AND ARAMAIC INSCRIPTIONS

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pp. 653-662

The Northwest Semitic inscriptions originating from the Near East—and to some degree also the Punic inscriptions from Northwest Africa and adjacent Phoenician colonies—are without exception of immediate interest to the student of the Old Testament, for either linguistic or historical reasons. Any selection, therefore, is arbitrary, and no claim is made that the inscriptions translated here are necessarily more important than some others which, for lack...

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South-Arabian Inscriptions

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pp. 663-670

The historical period of South Arabia begins, according to common opinion,1* with the eighth century B .C ., and is definitively closed by the Moslem occupation in the first half of the seventh century a.d. Its inscriptions are chiefly in the dialects spoken in the four great kingdoms of Saba’, Ma‘in, Qataban, and Hadramawt. Exclusively historical texts have been excluded from this collection; they ...

ADDENDA

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pp. 677-688

Index of Biblical References

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pp. 689-692

Index of Names

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pp. 693-716

Addenda

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p. 717