Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vii

Contents

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pp. viii-x

List of Figures and Tables

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pp. xi-xii

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xvi

This book originates from a time when I was engaged in a study on educational inequalities within American urban high schools. While conducting that research I encountered a number of incidents of violence between students from different ethnic backgrounds. These incidents became more frequent, and one day they erupted into a full-scale...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-18

Leanora Benitez screams, “What do you mean my son was in a fight and is on the way to the hospital? How can this happen in school? How did you let this happen? I get him up and off to school to learn, and you’re supposed to keep him safe!” As Mrs. Benitez begins to cry, Mr. Talbot, the principal at Los Angeles’s Chumash High School, responds...

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Chapter 1. Toward an Understanding of Ethnic Violence in Schools

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pp. 19-32

Violence in this study has been defined as an act of aggression aimed at causing some degree of pain or physical injury to the targeted individual(s). What distinguishes its various forms has more to do with the motive and target of the aggression than it does with either the type of aggressive movement involved or the tools used. In this regard, the...

PART ONE. Tinder

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Chapter 2. Kindling: The History of Ethnic Conflict

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pp. 35-53

Most researchers of violence, regardless of their conceptual framework, agree that the overwhelming majority of violent incidents are catalyzed by prior conditions involving one or more individuals. The question has always been to empirically identify these prior conditions and how they work to produce the violence. I begin with Randall Collins because his...

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Chapter 3. Climate and Weather: Social Conditions and Structural Change

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pp. 54-72

The previous chapter was concerned with identifying and analyzing the factors that provided the historical and social psychological basis for ethnic violence to occur—in terms of the fire metaphor, the kindling. In the case of fires, while certain kinds of vegetation are particularly likely to produce intense fires, certain environmental conditions must be...

PART TWO. Flames

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Chapter 4. Sparks and Smoke: The Start of Ethnic Violence

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pp. 75-105

The last two chapters described the conditions that increase the chances of violence: group and individual identity formation; neighborhood change and the personal and group insecurities associated with it; individuals’ experiences (some good, but mostly bad) dealing generally with members of different ethnic groups as well as the specific groups...

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Chapter 5. Fire: The Maturation of Ethnic Violence

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pp. 106-140

Ethnic violence in schools involves a process, a series of actions and reactions between individuals that evolve over time. The last chapter showed that stages within the first and second phases of violence constituted an evolving sequence. In the second phase (figure 4.1, P2, S1 and S2), various groups acted as teams for retaliatory purposes...

PART THREE. Embers

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Chapter 6. Dousing and Suffocating the Flames: Violence Suppression

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pp. 143-164

As with many aspects of the social sciences, we know more about what causes violence to occur than what causes it to end. The implication is that once the factors causing a social action to occur are identified and analyzed, their absence will cause the action to stop.1 Some theories concerning fighting look at the inner workings of cognitive structure that...

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Chapter 7. Monitoring the Embers: Keeping the Peace

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pp. 165-186

As described in the preceding chapter, both internal and external factors caused violence in the schools to decline (phase 5), but during the final phase of uneasy peace (phase 6) a delicate situation existed. Clearly some of the conditions responsible for the violence had sufficiently changed to put an end to it, but certainly not all of them had...

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Conclusion

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pp. 187-202

This book has focused on ethnic violence in schools. Ethnic violence is a phenomenon that continues to be an active part of social life throughout the world. The United States is not an exception. Given that it is a nation composed of an inordinately large number of divergent ethnicities with resource disparities and competition falling along ethnic lines...

Methodological Appendix

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pp. 203-214

Notes

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pp. 215-266

Bibliography

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pp. 267-282

Index

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pp. 283-290