Cover

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Half-title, Title page, copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

Author's Notes

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pp. vii-viii

Notes on Prosody

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pp. 1-2

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1. Prosodies

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pp. 3-4

The following notes on English and Russian iambic tetrameters are intended only to outline the differences and similarities between them. Pushkin is taken as the greatest representative of Russian poetry; the differences between his iambic tetrameters and those of other masters of the meter among minor and major Russian poets are matters of specific, not generic, distinction. Russian prosody, ...

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2. Feet

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pp. 4-9

If by prosodies we mean systems or forms of versification evolved in Europe during this millennium and used by her finest poets, we can distinguish two main species, the syllabic system and the metrical one, and a subspecific form belonging to the second species (but not inconsistent with certain syllabic compositions), ...

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3. The Scud

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pp. 9-17

We speak of an "accent" in relation to a word and of a "stress" in relation to a metrical foot. A "scud" is an unaccented stress. "An inextinguishable fláme" has two accented and two unaccented stresses. ...

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4. Tilted Scuds

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pp. 17-27

In reference to an iambic line, a typical or unqualified "tilt" denotes a sequence of accented depression and unaccented stress, ´∪ – (instead of the expected ∪ ´– or ∪ –), coinciding with any foot in the line.* Any tilt is a tilted scud, since the stress in such feet is not accented. English theorists term tilted scuds "inversion of stress"; ...

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5. Spondees

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pp. 27-30

Strictly speaking, the spondee—i.e., two adjacent semeia bearing exactly the same stress accent (´– ´–) and following each other without any break or pause (as might suggest to the ear an inner caesura or missed beat)—is an impossibility in metrical verse as distinguished from cadential or pausative forms. ...

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6. Elisions

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pp. 30-33

There are two varieties of elision in English prosody, and it is especially the second that enhances richness of rhythm (the presence or absence of an apostrophe is, of course, merely a typographical detail of no metrical significance; but for the linguist its omission in print sometimes throws light on matters of local or periodic pronunciation). ...

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7. The Origination of Metrical Verse in Russia

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pp. 33-46

In this section I am not concerned with the anonymous remnants of medieval narrative poetry in Russia, the unrhymed and non metrical recitatives, whose form, botched by centuries of oral transmission, was, by the eighteenth century, when the metrical system was first borrowed from the West, incapable of providing individual talent with a diction and a technique: ...

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8. Difference in Modulation

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pp. 46-51

The first thing that strikes the student visually when he compares Russian verse structures to English ones is the lesser number of words that go to form a Russian line metrically identical to an English one. This feature is owing both to an actual preponderance of polysyllables in the Russian language and to the inflective lengthening of its monosyllables such as nouns and verbs. ...

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9. Examples of Modulations

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pp. 51-69

English meter came into being almost four centuries before Russian meter did. In both cases, modulation was born with the measure. Among the tetrameters of Chaucer's The Hous of Fame (1383-84), there are trochaic and iambic lines that contain all the scuds of later poets, ...

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10. Counts of Modulations in Eugene Onegin

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pp. 69-76

Pushkin's pet line was the chetïrestopnïy yamb, the iambic tetrameter. It has been calculated that during a quarter of a century, from his Lyceum period—say, 1814—to the end of his life, January, 1837, he composed in this measure some 121,600 lines, which amounts to more than half of his entire output in any kind of verse. ...

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11. Other Meters and Rhythms

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pp. 76-79

These notes on prosody, meant only to give the reader a clear idea of the meter used by Pushkin in EO, cannot include a study of other metrical forms, beyond the remarks made on their origination. Suffice it to add that the similarities and distinctions between Russian and English forms remain the same throughout. ...

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12. Differences in Use of Meter

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pp. 80-82

In both English and Russian there is a definite predominance of binaries over ternaries; but this predominance is perhaps more marked in English than in Russian. For reasons basically associated with the brevity of English words, an English poem in ternaries seems more diffuse, more self-conscious, ...

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13. Rhyme

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pp. 82-96

If we exclude a few scattered masterpieces (such as Pushkin's beautiful but obviously derivative dramas), we can say that the medium of blank verse has not produced in Russia, during the two hundred years of its metrical history, anything similar in scope, splendor, and universal influence to the unrhymed iambic pentameter in England since Chaucer's day. ...

Index

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pp. 97-104

Abram Gannibal

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pp. 105-106

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Foreword

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pp. 107-108

The following sketch, which deals mainly with the mysterious origin of Pushkin's African ancestor, has no pretensions to settle the many difficulties encountered on the way. It is the outcome of a few odd moments spent in the admirable libraries of Cornell and Harvard universities, ...

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Pushkin's Comments Published During His Lifetime

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pp. 108-111

Pushkin's η. 11 to EO, One : L : 11 (". . . my Africa"), reads in the 1833 edn.: "The author, on his mother's side, is of African descent," and in the 1857 edn.: "See the first edition of Eugene Onegin,'' which is a reference to the 1825 (Feb. 16) separate edition of Chapter One, ...

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Pushkin's Ancestors

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pp. 111-112

On the Russian nobility side, Pushkin's family name can be traced back to one Konstantin Pushkin, born in the early fifteenth century, younger son of a Grigoriy Pushka. From Konstantin, there is a direct line of descent to Pyotr Pushkin (d. 1692), ...

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The Documents

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pp. 112-114

The basic documents regarding Abram Gannibal's origins are: ...

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Dates of Abram Gannibal's Birth and Death

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pp. 114-115

The three biographers nearest to Gannibal in time, Helbig (see "Works Consulted"), the unknown author of the German biography (c. 1785), and Bantish-Kamenski (1836), are not in agreement. Helbig says that Abram died in 1781, and reckons his age at eighty-seven. ...

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Gannibal's Origin

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pp. 116-118

The German biography begins: "Awraam Petrowitsch Hannibal war . . . von Geburt ein Afrikanischer Mohr [a blackamoor, an African black] aus Abyssinien. . . ." ...

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Gannibal's Birthplace

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pp. 118-125

Abrarn Gannibal's petition (1742) contains the following brief but important information: ...

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Gannibal's Sister

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pp. 125-127

After the passage concerning the scheming senior wives, who managed to have the youngest one's son turned over to the Turks, the German biography continues thus: ...

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Gannibal's Parentage

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pp. 127-131

To understand the various improbabilities and absurdities in the German biography, the history of Abyssinia should be briefly recalled. ...

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Gannibal's Enslavement

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pp. 131-134

In the Abyssinia of those days everybody seems to have been selling everybody else into slavery. There is a charming story about an Abyssinian priest who is sent young divinity students by a friend, another priest, sells these youths one by one to a Moslem trader, then sells him his friend the priest, and then gets sold himself. ...

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Gannibal in Turkey

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pp. 134-139

After describing Lahann's death at the time of her brother's departure from Abyssinia or some neighboring seaport, the German biography continues: ...

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Gannibal and Raguzinski

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pp. 139-143

"In the meantime," the German biography continues, using its favorite formula: ...

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Gannibal's First Years in Russia (1706-16)

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pp. 143-148

At the time of Gannibal's arrival in Russia, Peter was in the midst of the Swedish campaign, with the battlefield—a fluctuating and somewhat phantomic affair—in Poland. He had stayed in Vilno from July 8 to Aug. 1, 1705, and arrived in Moscow (from Grodno) on Dec. 19, 1705, remaining there till Jan. 13, 1706, when he went back, via Smolensk, to the martial sport in Poland. ...

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Gannibal in Western Europe (1716-23)

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pp. 148-151

In January, 1716, Peter I set out on a European tour. After spending a month or so in Copenhagen, he pursued his journey to Holland and France. He landed in Dunkerque on Apr. 30, 1717, N.S., and arrived May 7 in Paris, where he forthwith asked for beer and bawds. ...

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Gannibal and Annibal

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pp. 152-153

Officially, the name of Peter I's godchild had become Pyotr Petrovich Petrov (Christian name, patronymic, and surname), but he had grown used in Turkey to the name of Ibrahim and was allowed to call himself by its Russian counterpart, Avraam or Abram. ...

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Gannibal's Later Years in Russia (1723-81)

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pp. 153-155

Le capitaine Petrov dit Annibal, having acquired in France some knowledge of bulwarks and buttresses, lived, from 1723 on, in Russia, teaching mathematics and building fortresses. I have not performed any special research in regard to this final lap of his life; ...

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Conclusions

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pp. 155-161

Besides the unfinished romance (1827) "The Blackamoor of Peter the Great" (in which a greatly glamorized Ibrahim is given fictitious adventures in France and Russia—all this not in the author's best vein), there is among Pushkin's works a remarkable piece in verse referring to the same character. ...

Works Consulted

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pp. 162-168

Index

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pp. 169-182