Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. i-vi

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xii

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xiii-xx

The Hoosier grandparent I never met was Freeman Wood. A photograph taken around the end of the nineteenth century showing the interior of his parents’ grocery in the county seat, complete with sacks of flour and kibitzers, was an object of wonder in the family album. Freeman left the grocery business to become a stockman...

read more

Introduction: Why Provisionment?

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 3-12

Urban provisionment matters like few other things. In 1944–45, the people of Manila experienced mass starvation. The wartime Japanese occupiers decided to defend their position in the Philippines from American and Allied reinvasion. They sent reinforcements. In line with the ongoing imperial war policy, they set about provisioning...

Part I: The Rice Trade

read more

1. The Manila Rice Trade in the Age of Sail

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 15-46

Rice has been at the center of the everyday diet of Manilans ever since the city was instituted in the sixteenth century, through all the centuries that it served as the capital and chief trading center of the Spanish colony and after. No sizable portion of the Filipino and Chinese population of Manila preferred millet, wheat, or maize...

read more

2. Paleotechnic Marvels and Rice Production Disasters, 1876–1905

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 47-77

The newly practical technology of steam power affected the expanding Manila rice trade in two stages: in changing the characteristics of maritime shipping and in the nearly simultaneous introduction of the revolutionary forms of railroad transport and power rice milling. As elsewhere, the railroad with feeder...

read more

3. The Manila Rice Trade to 1941

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 78-95

The tonnages of rice received in Manila eventually grew to something far beyond the requirements of the urban and nearby populations for the city was integrating an expanding hinterland. It had become the principal center of the large import trade in rice and also for organizing the shipment of both domestic and imported...

read more

4. Changing Commercial Networks in the Rice Trade

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 96-122

Years ago, in one of the core texts in Southeast Asian social and economic history, Edgar Wickberg proposed a thesis about commodity marketing in the Philippines, including rice marketing, that has remained the standard ever since. Simply stated, Hispanized mestizos, of mostly Filipino-Chinese extraction, dominated...

Part II: Ulam: What You Eat with Rice

read more

5. Vegetables, Fruit, and Other Garden Produce

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 125-160

The conception of a meal in Tagalog society starts with boiled rice (kanin), and the main element of what one eats with it is represented as the ulam.1 Generally speaking, fish or fish products form the principal ulam, but vegetables (gulay) and meat (karne) are also included. In addition to vegetables and fruit...

read more

6. Fishing and Aquaculture

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 161-188

Fish formed the principal ulam for all but Manila’s more affluent residents, and they often ate fish as well. Families who employed a talented cook enjoyed relleno on occasion—a medium-sized fish that was cut open along the backside and cleaned. The meat was scraped out, boiled, and mixed with sautéed...

read more

7. “Generations of Hustlers”: Fowl and Swine in Manila

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 189-217

On a mass basis, fish constitute the primary ulam, the principal item of cuisine, along with rice. But chicken and pork are also ancient and important in regional culture. The major exception has to do with Islamized peoples, who avoid pork. Given the ability to afford such things, the two provide families with a diversification...

read more

8. Beef, Cattle Husbandry, and Rinderpest

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 218-250

Beef, though never a major item in the ordinary Philippine dietary, is important to this study in two ways. As an item of elite consumption, it was better documented than many other foodstuffs, while the importation of beef cattle precipitated epizootic crises that affected the entire economy.1 Eating beef has become...

Part III: Fluids and Fashions

read more

9. Fluids of Life: Water and Milk

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 253-278

Water and Milk may seem like ordinary matters, but without safe sanitary supplies of both the modern megacity is impossible. The city would be a death trap, especially for the infants and children who rely on milk. The death rates would be horrendous for all age groups, and the rapid replacement of individuals...

read more

10. Foreign Fashions: Flour and Coffee versus Cocoa

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 279-304

Wheat flour and coffee are food products that increasingly came in for mass everyday use in Manila relatively late in the colonial period. Both were comestibles introduced by outsiders—actually the introduction of wheat is obscure. As a beverage, coffee increasingly replaced cocoa, or chocolate, another originally...

Part IV: Wartime Provisioning and Mass Starvation

read more

11. Subsistence and Starvation in World War II, 1941–45

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 307-332

More than three years of Japanese occupation took its toll, even before the Battle of Manila in February 1945 resulted in massacre and destruction on a horrific scale.1 To chronicle the decline of the provisionment system in this era entails the use of oral history from survivors across the full spectrum of affluence...

read more

Epilogue

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 333-334

World War II had devastating consequences for the Philippines. The extreme destruction of Manila and other cities, shattered physical infrastructure and productive facilities, loss of life and talent in the general massacre and wastage of civilians, and the economic sundering of an effective Filipino civil service put long-term...

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 335-418

Glossary

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 419-425

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. 427