Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xii

As I wrote this book, I truly followed a desperate trail. Alone, I would never have made it. With the help of my sister, Mary Ellen Hillaire, my father, Joseph R. Hillaire, my grandfather, Frank Hillaire, my mother, and all my brothers and sisters, I remain encouraged, even at the end. You see, my entire family was with me, spiritually. Their words did not haunt me...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xvi

In the preface of this book, Pauline Hillaire thanks the elder generations of her family, and here we thank the younger generations of the family who have helped her with her work and in so many ways. As Pauline completed this book, she was assisted at home by her daughter Debra Covington Paul (Hae’tel’wit, Lummi/Colville, 1952– 2012; this Native name...

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Introduction: American Indian History and the Future

Gregory P. Fields

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pp. 1-29

This book is a contribution to ethnohistory carried out by a Native investigator. It is grounded in Native experience and oral tradition, and the author’s analysis of primary source documents of the U.S. government. Rights Remembered offers a Native elder’s analysis of U.S./Indian relations in the Puget Sound region of Washington, particularly in the mid-nineteenth century...

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A Short Autobiography

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pp. 30-35

Oh, Great Spirit—Let my words come as one of the rightful hosts of this great land. Let not my reach hurt a single soul. We shall welcome forever, like all blessings from You, those who come our way. Our hearts are not asleep this moment; we await your greater plan for us. Oh, hear our prayer for our hopes and dreams for our generations yet to come. Let not their hearts...

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Prologue: The Abundance That Was the Great Northwest

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pp. 36-42

Before I begin talking about the founding of the United States, Indian policy, and the creation of the treaties and reservations, the following pages tell something of the great abundance of our lands and waters in the Northwest. I tell of these things partly to paint a picture of what was lost to us, but also to show what we still have, and why is it so important that our land rights...

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PART 1. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AND BEFORE

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pp. 43-44

Were you there
when they crucified my people?
Were you there
when they crucified my tribe?...

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1. Forgotten Genocide

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pp. 45-72

Let’s trade places. You be “Indian” and I’ll be “white,” for the sake of a better understanding of how your mind might work, as compared to how mine has worked all these years, especially where it concerns this, my intense study of America’s aboriginal people, my ancestors, from the beginning to now. To make a long story short, I come along to your country, assert my laws of discovery...

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2. The Building of America

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pp. 73-88

Columbus, everyone knows, set the stage for the “discovery” of American Indian homelands in the fifteenth century. Europe wanted better access to trade and power in Asia. Columbus was one of few navigators willing to sail in search of a shorter route to the East Indies. Not everyone at that time believed that the earth was round, but Columbus accepted the evidence...

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3. Centuries of Injustice

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pp. 89-105

In the changing circumstances of the new United States, the government tried various policies to deal with the “Indian Problem.” The stage was being set for a clash of cultures across the nation, which eventually reached the tribes of the Pacific Northwest. The main players were the settlers (some of whom were paid in land to help establish the new nation’s coast- to- coast ownership)...

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4. Reservation Creation

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pp. 106-133

I wish to exclude the Man of 1492 in this chapter; he has been covered in a previous chapter anyway. But he cannot be completely overlooked, for this book suggests that Indian America’s history has been forgotten, or put aside. However, treaties that were made across the entire United States cannot be discarded so easily. Nearly four hundred ratified treaties with tribes...

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5. After the Treaty

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pp. 134-162

What happened after the Treaty of Point Elliott was signed? After the treaty, Indian people were uprooted from the lands that had sustained them physically and spiritually. The members of all the tribes and bands represented by the treaty (twenty-two named tribes and bands, plus “other allied and subordinate tribes and bands”) were supposed to share four small...

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PART 2. THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AND AFTER

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pp. 163-164

ABORIGINES, U.S.A.

Buried in broken promises
Broken treaties
Forgotten genocide
Remembered rights...

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6. Legal and Land Rights

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pp. 165-182

In the Civil Rights Act of 1968, Congress extended to Indians in their relationships with their tribal governments many of the provisions of the Bill of Rights (the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which protect U.S. citizens’ civil rights).1 The Civil Rights Act does not, however, override tribal sovereignty. This was tested in the Supreme Court case...

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7. A Shrinking Land Base, Persecution, and Racism

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pp. 183-196

Today I see some young women with earrings in their eyebrows, rings in their noses or lips, many earrings on their ears, and even jewels on their clothes. Such a difference in the way many dress today; what is sacred anymore? Some American Indian women try to keep up with non-Indian America in matters of dress and adornment; Indian men, too, try to keep up...

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8. Aboriginal Fishermen

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pp. 197-226

During my seventeen years of leading the Lummi Indian dance group Children of the Setting Sun, I told stories from Lummi oral tradition and from my research. Here is one of the stories about our aboriginal fishermen. Why weren’t our coastal tribes “removed” to east of the Cascades according to the U.S. government’s original plan to take over all of coastal...

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9. Break Through Ahistory

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pp. 227-248

How do we break through ahistory? In order to break through ahistory, we must study the patterns of the past. Breaking through ahistory starts with knowledge. But it does not stop with knowledge. Knowing about events and remembering rights are just the start of righting wrongs. We need respect and effort, along with knowledge, to make things right. This chapter is about...

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PART 3. ORAL HISTORY AND CULTURAL TEACHINGS

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pp. 249-250

Everyone in the Smokehouse, where I was brought into the secret society, dances with the universe: against the clock, with the universe. And as everyone dances, their song is sung four times, honoring every corner of the room. East, north, west, and south are four directions; four members of the family: mother, father, daughter, son; four elements: fire, water, air, and earth...

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10. Scälla—Of the Killer Whale: A Song of Hope

Rebecca Chamberlain

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pp. 251-261

As Native people, our value system is based on our relationship to the land. Our environment is part of every aspect of our lives. The land will sing to you if you listen. It is the source of songs. Many have stopped listening, but the spirits are still there. We manifest our value system through music, dance, art, and legends of our elders. ... As we explore our Native values, we ask...

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11. Earth, Our First Teacher

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pp. 262-278

My aunt Vi Hilbert (Upper Skagit, 1918–2008) taught me many important lessons of Indian Life. In addition to lessons from some of the most important elders in my life, I was very fortunate to be born early enough to live with elders and in times of old, and just as fortunate to be born a child who loved her elders. Older people, with the teachings of their...

12. Poems by Joseph R. Hillaire and Pauline R. Hillaire

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pp. 279-287

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13. History in the Time of the Treaty of Point Elliott: An Oration by Joseph R. Hillaire

Joseph R. Hillaire

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pp. 288-298

Once long ago when the great trees covered all this beautiful land, the waters of the Whulge (Puget Sound) swirled with salmon, numerous as the stars in the sky. For the most part, the wild animals moved about without fear as the Indian lived in peace with all nature. Nature was his protector, and the great white sentinels stood watch: Kulshan, Mt. Baker, guarded...

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Afterword: And to My Father

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pp. 299-300

There are no words left; my heart is filled with tears of love and gratitude to you, my father here on earth. I, your ignorant child, lay my heart before you, asking the Great Spirit to bless us both in our efforts. It was a long road for you long ago, and it remains a long road for us. Your portrait, gracing these four walls, brings such admiration. The artist did a fine job...

Appendix 1: Treaty of Point Elliott, 1855

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pp. 301-310

Appendix 2: United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007

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pp. 311-328

Appendix 3: Events in U.S. Indian History and Policy,Emphasizing the Point Elliott Treaty Tribes

Gregory P. Fields

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pp. 329-354

Notes

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pp. 355-382

Bibliography

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pp. 383-410

Index

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pp. 411-428

Image Plates

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