Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-viii

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Foreword

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pp. ix-xii

When Martin Luther King Jr. arrived in Chicago late in July 1965 to deliberate with leaders of the city’s civil rights organizations, he realized that he was coming to the end of one stage of his life and commencing another. He was confident that Congress would soon pass...

Abbreviations

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pp. xiii-xiv

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Introduction

Mary Lou Finley, Bernard LaFayette Jr., James R. Ralph Jr., Pam Smith

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pp. 1-10

In September 1965 a dozen or so members of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s southern field staff moved into the West Side Christian Parish’s Project House in the heart of Chicago’s Near West Side, joining other volunteers already living there. Black and white, male and female, most of them...

Part 1: Living the Chicago Freedom Movement

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1. In Their Own Voices: The Story of the Movement as Told by the Participants

Edited by James R. Ralph Jr. and Mary Lou Finley

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pp. 13-80

American popular culture likes to simplify complex issues. The Chicago Freedom Movement has often been depicted as a contest of wills between Martin Luther King Jr. and Mayor Richard J. Daley, with Daley “winning” and King “losing.” That depiction is misleading. The Chicago Freedom Movement...

Part 2: Background and History

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2. Interpreting the Chicago Freedom Movement: The Last Fifty Years

James R. Ralph Jr.

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pp. 83-99

Martin Luther King Jr. never quite knew how to judge the Chicago Freedom Movement. Shortly after the high-level negotiations that brought the open-housing campaign to a close in late August 1966, King told his congregation in Atlanta that the Summit Agreement “will probably stand...

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3. Toward the Apex of Civil Rights Activism: Antecedents of the Chicago Freedom Movement, 1965–1966

Christopher Robert Reed

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pp. 100-112

Ever-boastful Chicago—true to its appellation as the boisterous, garrulous Windy City—could lay claim to a level of civil rights activism in the aftermath of World War II that nearly matched the more famous civil rights revolution of the 1960s. A developing new liberal consensus on race—combined...

Part 3:The Impact of the Chicago Freedom Movement

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4. The Chicago Freedom Movement and the Federal Fair Housing Act

Leonard S. Rubinowitz

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pp. 115-130

In a 1965 interview Martin Luther King Jr. said: “I don’t feel that the Civil Rights Act has gone far enough in some of its coverage. . . . We need a strong and strongly enforced fair housing section such as many states already have.”1 By the middle of 1966, the Chicago Freedom Movement had decided...

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5. The Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities: Chicago and Fair Housing

Brian White

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pp. 131-153

The Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities (LCMOC) was a nonprofit fair-housing organization established as a direct result of the Chicago Freedom Movement. For nearly forty years it conducted fairhousing education, outreach, and legal action in the Chicago metropolitan region. It developed...

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6. The North Shore Summer Project: “We’re Gonna Open up the Whole North Shore”

Gail Schechter

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pp. 154-181

Ask even a ten-year-old from the Chicago area what she thinks upon hearing the term “North Shore” and the answer is likely to be “white,” “rich,” and “snobby.” Chicago’s North Shore is both a region and a brand, a reality and...

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7. Tenant Unions during the Chicago Freedom Movement: Innovation and Impact

Herman Jenkins

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pp. 182-206

The Chicago Freedom Movement (CFM) may be best remembered as a series of mass demonstrations demanding open access to housing for blacks and other minorities. But it also marked an important shift in the civil rights movement’s focus away from the de jure rights characteristic of the Jim Crow...

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8. The Chicago Freedom Movement and the Fight for Fair Lending

Mary Lou Finley

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pp. 207-227

On a brisk fall morning in 1965, John McKnight, Midwest director of the US Commission on Civil Rights, made a presentation in the basement of the Warren Avenue Congregational Church on Chicago’s West Side on the systematic discrimination in lending that prevented African American...

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9. Martin Luther King’s Legacy in North Lawndale: The Dr. King Legacy Apartments and Memorial District

Kimberlie Jackson

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pp. 228-235

It was April 4, 1998, the thirtieth anniversary of Dr. King’s assassination. For me, that’s when it began. As I headed toward my office at the Lawndale Christian Development Corporation (LCDC), I noticed that one of my coworkers had the morning’s Chicago Sun-Times on his desk. On the front page...

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10. The Movement Didn’t Stop

Jesse L. Jackson Sr.

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pp. 236-254

It has been almost fifty years since Dr. King appointed me to be the director of Operation Breadbasket in Chicago, and it is fitting for me to offer some reflections on the reverberating significance of the Chicago Freedom Movement, which...

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11. Perspectives on the Legacy of Jesse L. Jackson Sr.

Al Sharpton

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pp. 255-262

In 1968, the year Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated, I was thirteen. I was going to be fourteen that October. Dr. King was killed in April. There was a great amount of social activism in the country at that time. It was the end of the 1960s. The African American...

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12. The Rise of Independent Black Political Power in Chicago

Don Rose

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pp. 263-273

Chicago has a long history of electing a few black politicians to public office. But in the 1960s the city was still in the thrall of Mayor Richard J. Daley’s political machine, which routinely traded favors for votes. Loyalty to the machine was paramount. Precinct captains rounded up the votes for machine...

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13. Roots of the Environmental Justice Movement: A Community Mobilizes to End Childhood Lead Poisoning

Sherrilynn J. Bevel

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pp. 274-291

On a sunny spring day in 2006, I had the good fortune to tag along with Bernard LaFayette, who was on his way to Chicago’s East Garfield Park neighborhood to speak to a group of students at Al Raby High School. Their principal, Janice Jackson, had invited Bernard and Chicago Freedom Movement...

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14. Youth and Nonviolence: Then and Now

Pam Smith

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pp. 292-324

Youth played a critical role in the civil rights movement in the South. In 1960 college students launched the lunch counter sit-in movement in Greensboro, North Carolina, that spread across the South. The Children’s March in Birmingham...

Part 4: Stories from the Chicago Freedom Movement

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15. Music and the Movement I: Music and Grassroots Organizing

Jimmy Collier, Allegra Malone

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pp. 327-342

My grandfather was an accomplished musician, my grandmother as well. We played a lot of music in our family, and my grandparents taught me how to play different kinds of instruments. Early on, I was exposed to jazz, country...

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16. Music and the Movement II: Music for an Urban Movement

Gene Barge, Allegra Malone

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pp. 343-350

In the 1960s popular music was making its own statement; all the black artists of the time were influenced by the fight for equal rights. When Dr. King came to Chicago, all the black musicians were involved in or contributing to the movement through their music and beyond. While Dr. King...

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17. Women in the Movement I: The Women of SCLC-WSCP Take Action

Molly Martindale

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pp. 351-368

My first job after graduating from college was as a subsistence worker at a West Side Christian Parish (WSCP) storefront church on Roosevelt Road in Chicago. I had decided to “take care of home first” by volunteering here in the United States...

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18. Women in the Movement II: Dorothy Gautreaux

Hal Baron

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pp. 369-372

Long before there was a Gautreaux decision, there was Dorothy Gautreaux— a builder of community, a breaker of barriers, an inspiration and organizer to her fellows, a visionary. It is fitting that the Gautreaux case has been carried on in her...

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19. Labor and the Chicago Freedom Movement

Gil Cornfield, Melody Heaps, Norman Hill

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pp. 373-386

After the Selma campaign and passage of the Voting Rights Act in 1965, the civil rights movement entered a new phase. It had, as Martin Luther King Jr., put it, “left the realm of constitutional rights” and entered the arena of “human rights.” “The Constitution,” he added...

Part 5: Lessons Learned and the Unfinished Work

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20. Nonviolence and the Chicago Freedom Movement

Bernard LaFayette Jr.

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pp. 389-406

It was the summer of 1964, and I had just completed a year of college at Fisk University in Nashville. Hundreds of students from the North were headed south that summer to work on voter registration and Freedom Schools in Mississippi in what became known as Freedom...

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21. Movement Success: The Long View

Mary Lou Finley

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pp. 407-434

How can we think about the impact of the Chicago Freedom Movement? For many in the United States, poverty is even worse today than when Martin Luther King moved into that slum apartment in North Lawndale. And it is clear...

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Epilogue: Nonviolence Remix and Today’s Millennials

Jonathan Lewis

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pp. 435-442

[Editors’ note: On August 9, 2014, Michael Brown, an unarmed African American teenager residing in Ferguson, Missouri, was shot and killed by police officer Darren Wilson, who resigned from the police force but was never charged with a crime. Occurring just two years after...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 443-446

This book is the product of a long journey. It is an outgrowth of the fortieth anniversary commemoration of the Chicago Freedom Movement held in 2006, which all four editors helped plan. And just like the commemoration, it is the product of a highly collaborative...

Chronology

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pp. 447-450

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 451-458

Contributors

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pp. 459-464

Index

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pp. 465-500

Image Plates

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