Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. ix-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xii

This book is the revised version of my doctoral dissertation, "Afghanistan in the Reign of Amir Abd al-Rahman Khan, 1880-1901," submitted to the University of London in 1974. Major alterations have been made in the introduction, the sections on rural landlord-peasant relations and on the position of women, and...

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Note on Transcription

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pp. xiii-xiv

Because this is a study in history not linguistics, a phonetic system of transcription for the non-English sounds of the Arabic, Pashto, and Persian terms is not adopted. A conventional system of transcription...

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Introduction

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pp. xv-xxvi

Afghanistan, especially when compared with other countries in the three major regions in its area—Central Asia, the Middle East, and South Asia—is known for the variety of its physical features, climate, inhabitants, languages, religious beliefs, and modes...

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I. The Central Government: 1

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pp. 3-26

It is not known when and where Abd al-Rahman, the only son of Amir Muhammad Afzal Khan (the eldest son of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan), was born. Stephen Wheeler believes that he was born in 1844, and Sultan Mahomed agrees;1 but Lepel Griffin strongly maintains...

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II. The Central Government: 2

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pp. 27-46

The number of ministers and secretaries increased to an unprecedented degree in the reign of Amir Abd al-Rahman. As with elders, so with senior officials the amir's policy was to oppose the concentration of authority in one hand. The many government departments were...

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III.The Local Government

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pp. 47-72

Before 1880 provincial governors had exercised extensive authority, but under Amir 'Abd al-Rahman, they lost their former role, in spite of the enlargement of the system of local government and the weakening of the position of local magnates. Also the federal type of...

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IV. The System of Taxation

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pp. 73-92

To meet the increasing expenses of the state, Amir Abd al-Rahman directed full attention to the system of taxation. He modified the old system by raising the existing rates of land revenue, introducing new taxes, and bringing rent-free lands...

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V. The Army

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pp. 93-114

Although the army was raised to defend Afghanistan from foreign invasions, it became, in fact, the main instrument by which Amir 'Abd al-Rahman pacified the country. The amir did not inherit the army of his predecessors but created a large, disciplined army...

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VI. Social Structure: 1

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pp. 115-146

In Afghanistan during the time of the amir the majority of the inhabitants lived in egalitarian communities, although some lived in distinctly class differentiated communities (Hazara, Kafir, and Baluch). Even in the egalitarian communities individuals...

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VII. Social Structure: 2

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pp. 147-180

Islam has long been the acknowledged religion of the overwhelming majority of the inhabitants of Afghanistan. Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism, and Christianity have been practiced only by small minorities. Like most Muslim countries, Afghanistan, too, has had representatives...

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VIII. Economic Structure: 1

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pp. 181-200

Before 1880 the total number of inhabitants of Afghanistan was not known. Approximations were, however, many and conflicting. In 1892 a census of the population was officially attempted. Mainly because of the recurrent epidemics and high rate of mortality among...

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IX. Economic Structure: 2

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pp. 201-228

As a crossroad, Afghanistan, especially before the discovery of seaways, was always an important center of transit trade between India and central Asia. Contrary to general belief, in the reign of Amir Abd al- Rahman Khan, the transit trade, as well as Afghanistan's own internal...

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Conclusion

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pp. 229-234

In the present study the personality of Amir Abd al-Rahman Khan has been interwoven with the history of Afghanistan during the period under consideration. The amir, who more than any previous Afghan ruler left his imprint on the Afghan society, stands out as the dominant force in shaping the history of the country not as...

Appendix

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pp. 235-242

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Note on Sources

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pp. 243-254

Source materials for the period under discussion are considerable andcome mainly under four headings: unpublished official records, pub-lished official records, contemporary printed works, and modern print-ed works. Also available are a number of manuscripts in Persian. Theunpublished official records are the most comprehensive; and these...

Notes

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pp. 255-296

Abbreviations Used in the Notes

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pp. 255-257

Glossary

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pp. 297-306

Bibliography

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pp. 307-312

Index

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pp. 313-328