Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-x

The impetus for this book came from reading Andre Raymond's superb two-volume work dealing with the eighteenth century, Artisans et commercants au Caire au XVIIIeme siecle. His work did not deal with women, which is why I decided to research that...

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Introduction

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pp. xi-xiv

During the reign of Muhammad Ali legal documents were collected from the various courts and deposited in one area. Since then the documents have been moved to various places, finally ending up at the Registry Office, the Shahr al-Aqari, in 1970. Another set of deeds pertaining to the Ottoman period, dealing with...

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1. Women in the Eyes of Men: Myth and Reality

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pp. 1-12

Much of the history of Egypt has been written from the focal point of men. In the rare instances when women were mentioned, they were treated as little more than appendages to famous men or discussed within abstract theoretical concepts produced by Muslim legists, dating from the...

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2. Political Struggles: The Search for Leadership

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pp. 13-28

During the eighteenth century society was divided into (1) the alien ruling elites—the mamluks (an Arabic term meaning "owned," a military oligarchy of imported slaves who were then manumitted) and the Ottoman suzerains of Egypt; and (2) native-born elites of ulama...

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3. Society in Mamluk Egypt: The Elites

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pp. 29-64

Marriage in Islam is not a sacrament but a civil contract between a male and a female—though the female is frequently represented by her father or her uncle. When females were married at a very young age, at the onset of puberty, and had litde knowledge of finances or dowries, men assumed that they needed an older male to look after...

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4. Indigenous Elites in the Eighteenth Century: Ulama and Tujjar

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pp. 65-94

The accepted native leaders of the Egyptians in the eighteenth century were the ulama. Their basic function was to abide by the Quranic injunction "order good and deny evil": to preserve the traditions of Islam and to see that the Muslim community lived in accordance with its...

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5. Artisans and Ayan: Urban and Rural Middle and Lower Classes in the Eighteenth Century

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pp. 95-129

Social divisions were based on wealth, birth, profession, and connections but not entirely on any one of them. Such divisions were not clear-cut, which is why I treat both artisans and peasantry within the same chapter. Ayan were rural notables who derived their wealth...

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6. The Nineteenth Century: The Advent of Centralization

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pp. 130-150

We have seen that in the eighteenth century women of all social groups (alien elites, indigenous elites, artisans and ayan, urban and rural lower classes) had access to all forms of property. Neither gender nor the seclusion of the elites prevented women from...

Appendix A. Mamluk Elites

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pp. 151-154

Appendix B. Native Elites

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pp. 155-160

Appendix C. Women of Artisanal Classes

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pp. 161-166

Notes

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pp. 167-178

Select Bibliography

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pp. 179-182

Index

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pp. 183-185